by Laurie Lynch, N.D.
A weak or malfunctioning thyroid gland can have
a devastating effect on the brain, moods, behavior, and quality of life!
"Thyroid disease has hit epidemic levels in
United States over the last decade" (knowbalance.com). "An estimated 20
million Americans have thyroid disorders, but
more than half still remain undiagnosed.
Approximately 1 out of every 8 women will
develop a thyroid disorder in her lifetime.
Women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to
suffer from a thyroid condition. The elderly
are also more likely to suffer from
hypothyroidism. By age 60, as many as 17
percent of women have an underactive thyroid.
Five to 8 percent of women develop thyroid
abnormalities post-partum" (Georgetown
University Department of Medicine).
understanding of the thyroid and its functions, causes of malfunctions, and
the various methods of treatment and healing
can be very helpful. So let's see what some experts say about the
"The thyroid gland is part of the
endocrine system and plays a key role in your
overall health producing numerous hormones
that orchestrate various bodily functions"
is a small butterfly shaped gland, located in
the front of the neck, below the larynx (voice
box). The small, two-inch gland consists of
two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe
(trachea), connected by tissue called the
isthmus. The thyroid tissue is made up of two
types of cells: follicular cells and
parafollicular cells. Most of the thyroid
tissue consists of the follicular cells, which
secrete iodine-containing hormones called
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The
parafollicular cells (also called C
cells) secrete the hormone calcitonin. The
thyroid needs iodine to produce the hormones"
The thyroid works with other glands to perform
a variety of functions. “Levels of hormones secreted by the thyroid are
controlled by the pituitary gland's thyroid-stimulating hormone, which in
turn is controlled by the hypothalamus" (healthsystem.virginia.edu).
"The anterior pituitary is crucial for proper thyroid function through the
production and secretion of thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH secretion is positively regulated by a
neurohormone known as thyrotropin releasing
hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus" (abbottdiagnostics.com).
"When the level of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) drops too low, the
pituitary gland produces ... (TSH)
which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce
more hormones. Under the influence of TSH, the
thyroid will manufacture and secrete T3 and T4
thereby raising their blood levels. The
pituitary senses this and responds by
decreasing its TSH production"
"Dysfunction at this stage in the stimulatory cascade results in decreased
TSH production and hence hypothyroidism, termed a tertiary thyroid disorder.
While thyroid hormones T4 and T3 down-regulate TSH in a classic feedback
inhibition scheme, TRH production is also inhibited (by) these thyroid
hormones, albeit to a lesser degree, in the hypothalamus"
are the functions of the thyroid gland?
Iodine absorption -
"The function of the thyroid gland is to
take iodine found in many foods. …Thyroid cells are
the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine“ (endocrineweb.com).
Thyroid hormone (TH) production and storage
- The thyroid takes iodine, found in many foods such as kelp, and
converts it into thyroid hormones, T4 and T3. These cells combine iodine and
the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4.
"The normal thyroid gland produces about 80%
T4 and about 20% T3, however, T3 possesses
about four times the hormone 'strength' as T4"
of biochemical processes
- "T3 and T4 are responsible for
regulating diverse biochemical processes throughout the body which are
essential for normal development and metabolic and neural activity"
Biosynthesis of enzymes - "Thyroid’s
actions in the cell is to increase the biosynthesis of enzymes, resulting in
oxygen consumption, and elevated metabolic rate" (infertilityworkshop.com).
metabolism – Thyroid hormones help the
body to convert food into energy and heat. T3
and T4 are "released into the blood stream and
are transported throughout the body where they
control metabolism (conversion of oxygen and
calories to energy). Every cell in the body
depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation
of their metabolism"
synthesis - "T3 triggers
rapid protein synthesis and influences
gene transcription, the reading of
genes and synthesis of
proteins from genetic information.
These activities cause breakdown of proteins"
Energy production -
hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce
TH stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids into energy.
reduction - "Increased T3 will immediately increase the conversion of
cholesterol to progesterone and bile acids" (Raymond Peat,
fatty acids - "Thyroid
stimulates the release of free fatty acids from adipose (fat) tissue"
"TH elevates the heart rate to meet the
increased oxygen needs"
- "TSH, which stimulates the thyroid to
produce TH, also stimulates brown adipose
tissue, a mitochondria-rich tissue, to boost
heat production in mammals without muscle
activity. TH fluctuates in response to caloric
intake and external temperature"
Bone growth - "Thyroid hormones also play a key role in bone
(kidshealth.org). The thyroid produces calcitonin which works with parathyroid hormones to
regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
Brain and nervous system
reproductive system regulation
What is thyroid disease?
disease is where the thyroid does not produce
the right hormones in the right balance.
There are a variety thyroid disorders:
Hyperactive thyroid disorders
(where the thyroid overproduces its hormones)
include Grave's Disease and Thyroid Storm. "These
excess hormones affect many organ systems and cause varying degrees of a
spectrum of illnesses" (Craig
A Manifold, DO).
(diffuse toxic goiter) is the most common form
of overt hyperthyroidism and has a suspected
immunologic etiology. Besides hyperthyroidism, the disease is characterized by one or more of
- Goiter (swelling of the thyroid
- Exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion
of the eyeballs)
- Pretibial myxedema"
in the pretibia area [swelling in lower
leg area]) (Craig
A Manifold, DO).
- "Thyroid storm is a rare complication of
hyperthyroidism. It often is precipitated by a
physiologically stressful event. If untreated,
thyroid storm may be fatal. ...High levels of
thyroid hormones suppress the pituitary
release of TSH,
so TSH levels are usually low in thyrotoxicosis"
A Manifold, DO)
condition in which the thyroid gland does not
produce adequate levels of these critical
is very common and
is estimated to affect 3%-5% of the adult
population. It is more common in women than in
men, and the risk of developing hypothyroidism
increases with advancing age. Hypothyroidism
is most commonly a result of an autoimmune
condition known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in
which the body's own immune cells attack and
destroy the thyroid gland"
* Thyroiditis is
inflammation of the thyroid gland and is classified into various sub
categories. The attack by the immune
system causes inflammation
in this gland which can lead to Hashimotos disease. thyroiditis is the most
cause of hypothyroidism in United States affecting approximately 15 million
American women" (ezinearticles.com).
* Hashimoto's disease is defined as "chronic thyroditis characterized by
goiter, thyroid fibrosis,
infiltration of thyroid tissue by lymphoid tissue, and the production of
autoantibodies that attack the thyroid"
(Miriam Webster's Medical Dictionarty, p. 276, 1995). “This disorder is
believed to be the most common cause of
primary hypothyroidism in North America. It occurs far more often in women
than in men (10:1 to 20:1), and is most
prevalent between 45 and 65 years of age“ (healthsystem.virginia.edu).
"Incidence: 0.3–1.5 cases per 1,000 per year.
The female-to-male ratio is 20:1. The disease is most common in middle aged
women, but it can affect all age groups
, including children" (Daniela Cihakova MD, PhD).
"Physiologically, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and/or thyroglobulin
cause gradual destruction of
follicles in the thyroid gland ... It is also characterized by invasion of
the thyroid tissue by leukocytes, mainly
- lymphocytes." (AJ Giannini. 1986,pp.193-198). "All forms of thyroid
autoimmunity typically start with
T and B cells: ... T and B cells infiltrate the thyroid gland in equal
numbers. These white blood cells are the
primary infection-fighting immune cells. T cells identify invasive
molecules, such as viral proteins, and
help B cells to produce antibodies that are designed specifically to attack
these invaders. In cases of
autoimmunity, T cells are tricked into classifying molecules on the body's
own cells as invaders. In such cases,
B cells then produce antibodies, called autoantibodies, which attack those
cells. In most cases of thyroid
autoimmunity, the autoantibodies launch an attack on a thyroid protein
called thyroid peroxidase; this attack
appears to destroy thyroid cells" (endocrineweb.com).
* "Subacute Thyroiditis is a temporary condition that passes through three
hypothyroidism, and a return to normal thyroid levels. Patients may have
symptoms of both hyperthyroidism and
hypothyroidism (rapid heartbeat, nervousness, weight loss), and they can
feel extremely sick. Symptoms last about 6
- 8 weeks and then resolve in most patients, although each form carries some
risk for becoming chronic.
Experts estimate that subacute thyroiditis is responsible for 1 0% of all
cases of hypothyroidism" (adam.about.com).
"The three forms of subacute thyroiditis follow a similar course:
* "Painless Postpartum Subacute Thyroiditis - Postpartum thyroiditis is an
that occurs in up to 10% of pregnant women and tends to develop between 4 -
12 months after delivery. In most
cases, a woman develops a small, painless goiter. Although 80% of women with
this condition have normal thyroid
function within a year, some evidence suggests that half of women with this
condition develop permanent
hypothyroidism within 7 years. Women who have had recurrent episodes after
previous pregnancies and women who
have other autoimmune disorders are at higher risk for this form of subacute
thyroiditis. It is generally self-
limiting and requires no therapy unless the hypothyroid phase is prolonged.
* "Painless Sporadic, or Silent, Thyroiditis. This painless condition is
very similar to postpartum
thyroiditis except it can occur in both men and women and at any age. About
20% of patients with silent
thyroiditis may develop chronic hypothyroidism.
* "Painful, or Granulomatous, Thyroiditis. This condition comes on
suddenly with flu-like symptoms and
severe neck pain and swelling. It generally occurs in the summer and is five
times more common in women. It
recurs in about 2% of patients. Hypothyroidism persists in about 5%" (endocrineweb.com).
is the most common cause of
hypothyroidism in United States
affecting approximately 15 million American
is inflammation of the
thyroid gland and is classified into various
The attack by the
immune system causes inflammation in this
gland which can lead to Hashimotos disease.
Hashimoto's disease is defined as
"chronic thyroditis characterized by goiter,
thyroid fibrosis, infiltration of thyroid
tissue by lymphoid tissue, and the production
of autoantibodies that attack the thyroid"
(Miriam Webster's Medical Dictionarty, p.
autoimmune disease where the body's
own T-cells attack the
cells of the
thyroid..... This disorder is
believed to be the most common cause of
North America. It occurs far more
often in women than in men (10:1 to 20:1), and
is most prevalent between 45 and 65 years of
age.... Hashimoto's thyroiditis may result in
hypothyroidism, although in its
acute phase, it can cause a transient
thyrotoxic state known as
Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs when
inflammation caused by an autoimmune process
destroys the thyroid gland, leading to an
insufficient production of thyroid hormones...
0.3–1.5 cases per 1,000 per year. The
female-to-male ratio is 20:1. The disease is
most common in middle aged women, but it can
affect all age groups, including children"
(Daniela Cihakova MD, PhD).
thyroid peroxidase and/or
thyroglobulin cause gradual
follicles in the
thyroid gland ... It is also
characterized by invasion of the thyroid
(AJ Giannini. 1986,pp.193-198).
"All forms of
thyroid autoimmunity typically start with T
and B cells: ... T and B cells infiltrate the
thyroid gland in equal numbers. These white
blood cells are the primary infection-fighting
immune cells. T cells identify invasive
molecules, such as viral proteins, and help B
cells to produce antibodies that are designed
specifically to attack these invaders. In
cases of autoimmunity, T cells are tricked
into classifying molecules on the body's own
cells as invaders. In such cases, B cells then
produce antibodies, called autoantibodies,
which attack those cells. In most cases of
thyroid autoimmunity, the autoantibodies
launch an attack on a thyroid protein called thyroid peroxidase; this attack
appears to destroy thyroid cells" (endocrineweb.com).
Thyroiditis is a temporary condition that
passes through three phases: hyperthyroidism,
hypothyroidism, and a return to normal thyroid
levels. Patients may have symptoms of both
hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism (rapid
heartbeat, nervousness, weight loss), and they
can feel extremely sick. Symptoms last about 6
- 8 weeks and then resolve in most patients,
although each form carries some risk for
becoming chronic. Experts estimate that
subacute thyroiditis is responsible for 10% of
all cases of hypothyroidism" (adam.about.com).
"The three forms of
subacute thyroiditis follow a similar course:
"Painless Postpartum Subacute Thyroiditis.
Postpartum thyroiditis is an autoimmune
condition that occurs in up to 10% of pregnant
women and tends to develop between 4 - 12
months after delivery. In most cases, a woman
develops a small, painless goiter. Although
80% of women with this condition have normal
thyroid function within a year, some evidence
suggests that half of women with this
condition develop permanent hypothyroidism
within 7 years. Women who have had recurrent
episodes after previous pregnancies and women
who have other autoimmune disorders are at
higher risk for this form of subacute
thyroiditis. It is generally self-limiting and
requires no therapy unless the hypothyroid
phase is prolonged.
or Silent, Thyroiditis.
This painless condition is very similar to
postpartum thyroiditis except it can occur in
both men and women and at any age. About 20%
of patients with silent thyroiditis may
develop chronic hypothyroidism.
"Painful, or Granulomatous, Thyroiditis.
This condition comes on suddenly with flu-like
symptoms and severe neck pain and swelling. It
generally occurs in the summer and is five
times more common in women. It recurs in about
2% of patients. Hypothyroidism persists in
about 5%. Treatments typically include pain
relievers and, in severe cases,
hormone resistance - "ADHD Symptoms
suggestive of this disorder have
been reported in subjects with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, a disease
caused by mutations in the thyroid
gene and characterized by reduced
responsiveness of peripheral and
pituitary tissues to the actions of thyroid hormone"
(Peter Hauser et al).
Thyroid nodules do not function like
normal thyroid tissue.
which can occur at any age, can be very
successfully treated if detected early"
(with natural remedies).
"is an abnormal swelling in the neck caused by
an enlarged thyroid gland. It can become quite
large. The problem occurs in at least 5% of
the population worldwide. The most common
cause of a goiter is lack of iodine, ...Even
with the right amount of iodine, the thyroid
gland can swell, creating a goiter. This can
occur in any type of thyroid disease,
including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism,
thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer. However, many goiters develop with normal
thyroid hormone levels and do not require treatment"
What are the signs and symptoms of thyroid disease?
* Hyperactive thyroid symptoms
could include one or more of the following:
Mental/behavioral symptoms -
"The literature also states that
before hyperthyroidism was recognized as a disease, many patients with
Graves' disease spent their days in asylums"
- Anxiety is the
most common symptom.
- "Graves Rage" -
"Grave's Rage", the sufferer sometimes
commits "acts which to them seem violent or
out of character", such as screaming, throwing
dishes, or assaulting some one,
inappropriate feelings of anger, frequently
followed by an impulsive destructive response
to this anger, becoming "obsessed, not letting
go of the inappropriate anger without some how
- Emotional and mental
- Intense mood swings.
for no apparent reason
- Feeling edgy and irritable one
minute, and normal the next.
feeling of insecurity and instability
a condition that renders its victims fearful of leaving their homes.
concern about physical symptoms
Loss of emotional
disorder" such as bulging eyes, swollen eyelids, unblinking
stare, double vision, increased eye
symptoms such as heart
palpitations, chest pain, widened pulse pressure, congestive heart
failure (may be a high output failure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
(difficulty breathing), shortness of breath
heat intolerance, increased sweating
weakness, myopathy (muscle disorder), periodic paralysis,
muscle wasting can be so dramatic that
climbing stairs becomes difficult.
moist skin, skin changes
arising within the thyroid
hands - "Tremors and hyperkinetic
movements are also a frequent occurrence and are caused by the effect of
excess thyroid hormone on the nervous system"
- Bowel problems such as
increased frequency of bowel movements,
- Brittle nails
problems such as decreased
and less frequent menstrual
flow, infrequent or absent menstrual periods
- Diminished sex drive
- Abnormal breast enlargement in
symptoms commonly include staring (infrequent blinking), lid lag"
A Manifold, DO).
(underactive) symptoms could include: "The most common symptoms are
feeling slow, drowsy during
the day, even after sleeping all night, lethargy
Unexplained weight gain
Dry, coarse hair, hair loss,
loss of eyebrow hair
"Low TH levels also produce ...slight
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
digestion of food
Slow heart rate
discharge from the breasts
disease – 'Symptoms
of Hashimoto's thyroiditis might include
symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the early phase
of the disease, and then hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is
often misdiagnosed as bipolar disorder and, less frequently, as anxiety
( AJ Giannini,
How do thyroid disorders affect the
rest of the body?
pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and sex
glands all work together and are influenced by
thyroid function. If there is a problem in one
place, they all may be affected"
(James F. Balch, MD, 1989, p. 211).
of the most profound effects of TH imbalance
are in the mental arena"
"Hypothyroid people sleep easily and do not
get full refreshment from their sleep. During
waking hours, they experience fatigue, apathy,
and "brain fog" (short-term memory problems
and attention deficits). These problems may
affect their daily functioning and cause
increased stress and
depression. ... TH acts as a
neurotransmitter. TH imbalance can
mimic psychiatric disease because T3
influences levels of
serotonin, a neurotransmitter
integral to moods and behavior. Low levels of
T3 can cause depression. Some
anti-depressants make hypothyroid
patients feel even worse because the
medications depress T3 levels. Paradoxically,
some substances labelled
depressants such as alcohol or
opiates can increase T3 levels by impairing
the breakdown of T3 in the brain, thus lifting
mood. This may be one reason why these
substances are so addictive" (Phillips).
One study investigated relationships between
peripheral thyroid hormone levels and
cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral glucose metabolism in affectively ill
patients . "CONCLUSIONS:
These data suggest that peripheral TSH
(putatively the best marker of
thyroid status) is inversely related to global
and regional CBF and cerebral
glucose metabolism. These findings indicate
relationships between thyroid and
cerebral activity that could provide
mechanistic hypotheses for thyroid
contributions to primary and secondary mood disorders and the psychotropic effects
of thyroid axis manipulations"
(LB Marangell, et al).
"Severe hypothyroidism can cause symptoms
memory loss, confusion, slowness, paranoid
depression, and in extreme stages,
"An extremely rare condition associated with
the thyroiditis is
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) is a well-recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood.....
Symptoms suggestive of this
disorder have been reported in subjects with
generalized resistance to thyroid
hormone, a disease caused by mutations in the thyroid receptor-
gene and characterized by reduced
responsiveness of peripheral and
pituitary tissues to the actions of thyroid hormone. Conclusions In our
study sample, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is strongly associated with
generalized resistance to thyroid
(Peter Hauser, et al).
nervous system disorders - "Thyroid
hormones are widely distributed in the brain
and have a multitude of effects on the central
nervous system. Notably many of the limbic
system structures where thyroid hormone
receptors are prevalent have been implicated
in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. The
influence of the thyroid system on
neurotransmitters (particularly serotonin and
norepinephrine), which putatively play a major
role in the regulation of mood and behavior,
may contribute to the mechanisms of mood
modulation. Recent functional brain imaging
studies using positron emission tomography
(PET) with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose
demonstrated that thyroid hormone treatment
with levothyroxine affects regional brain
metabolism in patients with hypothyroidism and
bipolar disorder. Theses studies confirm that
thyroid hormones are active in modulating
metabolic function in the mature adult brain"
(M. Bauer, Pharmacopsychiatry 2003).
eye disease (in Grave's disease ) - "The eye symptoms usually appear
when thyroid hormone levels are too high but can occur when these levels
are normal or below normal" (2008, uic.edu/com).
Possible eye effects include:
* Proptosis (Protrusion of one or both eyeballs)
- "This finding is present in 70 – 90% of cases of thyroid eye disease.
The swelling that causes proptosis is due to
collections of fluid, fat, and inflammatory cells. ... Proptosis may
gradually increase to the extent that the cornea (the transparent tissue
covering the front of the eye) becomes exposed. This exposure leads to
drying and inflammation, which can progress to severe infections and
of the cornea in extreme cases. Also, the orbital swelling may be so
severe that the pressure within the eye increases, leading to glaucoma.
The optic nerve, which is responsible for sending information received
from the eye to the brain, may become strangled, resulting in severe or
total visual loss" (2008, uic.edu/com)..
* Inflammation and swelling
of the tissues around the
eye, including the orbital fat and eye muscles
* Puffy, swollen eyelids.
* Gritty, burning, irritated eyes that frequently water.
* Diplopia (double vision) - "The muscles that move the
eyes may also become congested and stiff. This leads to double vision,
since the muscles
are unable to move the eyes together. As the disease gets worse,
scarring of these muscles may occur, resulting in permanent limitation
of eye movements" (2008, uic.edu/com)..
* Decreased vision, often following reduced brightness of
* Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, the thin
layer covering the white part of the eye.
* Difficulty in completely closing the eyelids,
especially while sleeping.
- Hyperventilation with alkalosis.
- "Hypothyroidism is the second leading cause
cholesterol, after diet. When TH
levels drop, the liver no longer functions
properly and produces excess cholesterol,
fatty acids, and
triglycerides, which increase the
risk of heart disease. High cholesterol may
also contribute to the risk of Alzheimer's
"Hyperthyroidism causes accelerated heart rate and fatigue, even
when patients are at rest. ... Some experience thyroid storms--high
overloads of thyroid hormones that accelerate their heart rate to as
high as 300 beats a minute. This is a very life-endangering condition
and can result in arrhythmia or heart attack. ... (Phillips).
"Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to an
enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy),
worsening heart failure.
"TH imbalance has
a profound effect on
fitness because TH helps control
heart rate and blood pressure.
Under hypothyroid conditions, the heart can
slow to 30 heart beats a minute and develop
arrhythmia. Blood pressure may fall from
normal levels of 120/90 to 70/50"
thyroiditis may lead to ...heart failure"
hypothyroidism, thyrotropin-release hormone (TRH) is usually increased,
increasing release of TSH. TRH itself can cause tachycardia, "palpitations,"
high blood pressure... It can increase the release of norepinephrine, but in
itself it acts very much like adrenalin. TRH stimulates prolactin release,
and this can interfere with progesterone synthesis, which in itself affects
heart function" (Raymond Peat, PhD, 2010).
- Muscle weakness - Hypothyroid (underactive)
"produces lower exercise tolerance because
protein and fat catabolism are accelerated,
resulting in build-up of ketones. (Phillips,).
Hypothyroid (underactive) "has the effect of
slowing the body down"
(NSW Health). "Hashimoto's
thyroiditis may lead to muscle failure"
"With respiration impaired and oxygen in
short supply, exercise takes a heavy toll on
the body, and muscles do not strengthen in
response to exercise; nor does stamina
Hypothyroidism also weakens muscles
in "the diaphragm. As a result, breathing can
become less efficient. A goiter impairs
breathing even more. Snoring may start or
hypothyroidism can lead to ...an accumulation
of fluid around the lungs"
of the skin
- Hypothyroid patients may develop yellowed
skin due to carotenoid (Vitamin A precursors)
deposits in the skin when the liver no longer
can store enough. Vitamin A usage and
synthesis drops as thyroid hormone levels
- Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma
"Thyroid disorders are "associated with
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
may result in
hypothyroidism, although in its
acute phase, it can cause a transient
thyrotoxic state known as
hashitoxicosis" An extremely rare condition
associated with the thyroididis is
stasis (constipation) can result from hypothyroid.
eyes, swollen eye lids, increase of pressure in the eye.
system disorders - “Graves' disease can have an effect on many
parts of the body such as the nervous system, eyes, skin, hair/nails,
lungs, digestive system, muscles/bones and reproductive system”
- Hormone Imbalance may have the following
effects on a woman's body:
* "Thyroid disorders can cause abnormally
early or late onset of puberty and
menstruation. In addition, abnormally high or
low levels of thyroid hormone can cause very
light or very heavy menstrual periods, very
irregular menstrual periods, or absent
menstrual periods (a condition called
* "An overactive or underactive
thyroid may also affect ovulation. Thyroid
disorders may prevent ovulation from occurring
at all. In addition, the ovaries are at an
increased risk for cyst development if the
woman has an underactive thyroid
(hypothyroid). Severe hypothyroidism can
actually cause milk production in the breast,
while preventing ovulation.
* "Thyroid disorders during
pregnancy can harm the fetus and may lead to
postpartum thyroid problems, such as
- * "Thyroid disorders may cause the
early onset of menopause (before age 40 or in
the early 40s). In addition, some symptoms of
hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) such as
lack of menstruation, hot flashes, insomnia,
and mood swings may be mistaken for early
menopause. Treating hyperthyroidism sometimes
can alleviate symptoms of, or the actual onset
of, early menopause"
How are thyroid disorders diagnosed?
tests - "Both
conditions can be diagnosed with a blood test,
but may not show up until it increases in
in many cases T4 values give good indications
of thyroid status, T4 values should be
normalized for individual variations in
thyroxine binding protein (TBP) capacity. The
Free Thyroxine Index (FTI) is conventionally
used to achieve this measurement. To ensure
maximum diagnostic accuracy, the final
definition of thyroid status should be
determined in conjunction with other thyroid
function tests such as TSH, FT4, Total T3, FTI
and clinical evaluation by the physician" (abbottdiagnostics.com).
thyroid disease is identified by detecting
antibodies in the blood.
"In hyperthyroidism, free T4 is elevated and
TSH is decreased. Thyroid function studies do
not distinguish thyrotoxicosis from thyroid
storm. Studies may include "low serum
cortisol, normocytic, normochromic anemia and
leukocytosis (common), nonspecific electrolyte
abnormalities (common), low serum cholesterol,
hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia (may
be associated with periodic paralysis), liver
functions tests, chest x-ray may identify
congestive heart failure or pulmonary
infections, often associated with progression
to thyroid storm, nuclear thyroid scan,
diffuse uptake in Graves disease, focal uptake
in toxic nodular thyroiditis" (Craig
A Manifold, DO).
thyroid image (scan) done with a radioactive chemical shows the
size, shape, and function of the gland and of thyroid nodules. A nodule
that takes up more of the radioactive material than the rest of the
gland is called a hot nodule. A nodule that takes up less radioactive
material is a cold nodule. Hot nodules are seldom cancerous, but less
than 10% of all nodules are hot. Cold nodules may or may not be
However the radioactive material used can be a cause of thyroid
problems, including thyroid cancer.
What are the causes of thyroid disorders?
deficiency is the major cause of
hypothyroidism for much of the world, due to
absence of iodine in the diet and/or high
consumption of soy, corn, and Brassica plants (cabbage, broccoli, Brussels
sprouts, etc.). ... Iodine overdose rarely is a
problem, as the thyroid gland stores iodine
until it is necessary, and releases TH in the
less active T4 form, and TH is also bound up
by transport proteins in the blood until it is
deficiency or excess -
"When people have abnormally low cholesterol, I think it's important to
increase their cholesterol before taking thyroid, since their
steroid-forming tissues won't be able to respond properly to thyroid without
adequate cholesterol. ... High cholesterol is more closely connected to
hypothyroidism" (Raymond Peat, PhD, 2010).
Autoimmune thyroid disease – "In the
case of Graves' disease, antibodies latch onto
an enzyme essential for making T4, and keep it
active and continually turned on"
Severe illness or injury
may lead to lower levels of TH, "which rebound once the
patient is healed"
" A variety of medical conditions can involve
the thyroid and change the normal gland tissue
so that it no longer produces enough thyroid
hormone. Examples include hemochromatosis,
scleroderma, and amyloidosis....
Chronic disease, such
can mimic (or cause) hypothyroidism.
chronic illnesses,...(such as) infectious and
chronic active hepatitis, biliary cirrhosis,
renal failure, or congenital increase in TBG
levels, many abnormalities of thyroid hormone
balance occur. Conversely, when TBG levels are
decreased, such as in nephrotic syndrome,
androgen therapy, glucocorticoid therapy,
major systemic illness or congenital decrease
of TBG, T4 may be reduced" (abbottdiagnostics.com).
"Thyroid storm can be triggered by many
different events; pulmonary infection (most
common precipitating event), autoimmune
trigger, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar
coma, ...cardiovascular events, toxemia of
A Manifold, DO).
"A toxic (hyperfunctional) thyroid nodule
(adenoma) is an area of abnormal local tissue
growth within the thyroid gland. This abnormal
tissue produces thyroid hormones even without
stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Thus, a nodule escapes the mechanisms that
normally control the thyroid gland and
produces thyroid hormones in large quantities.
Toxic multinodular goiter (Plummer's disease),
in which there are many nodules, is uncommon
in adolescents and young adults and tends to
become more common with aging"
Glandular malfunctions such as
pituitary gland, hypothalamus in the brain,
adrenal, and pancreas can affect thyroid
function. "In rare instances, usually
due to a tumor, the pituitary gland will fail
to produce thyrotropin (TSH), the hormone that
stimulates the thyroid to produce its
hormones. In such cases, the thyroid gland
withers. When this happens, secondary
hypothyroidism occurs" (umm.edu). "An
overactive pituitary gland can produce too
much TSH, which in turn leads to
overproduction of thyroid hormones. However,
this is an extremely rare cause of
imbalance - "Estrogen
excess or progesterone deficiency tends to cause enlargement of the
thyroid gland, in association with a hypothyroid state. ... In
hypothyroidism, there is a tendency to have too much estrogen and cortisol,
and too little progesterone"
(Raymond Peat, PhD, 2010). "Estrogen,
progesterone, and thyroid hormones are interrelated. ... The taking of
thyroid supplements was especially common in women with this condition (estrogen
dominance syndrome). When
I attempted to correct their estrogen dominance by adding progesterone, it
was common to see that their need for thyroid supplements decreased and
could often be successfully eliminated" (infertilityworkshop.com).
Low caloric intake/starvation
fluctuates in response to caloric intake and
external temperature. During starvation, the
body naturally lowers TH, not only to reduce
caloric needs, but also to prevent
ketone bodies from building up in the blood and kidneys"
underlying cause of most diseases, and can
cause abnormal levels of thyroid hormones..
of studies showed that "Alterations in
nutritional state, whether short term or
chronic, affect physiology of the thyroid
hormone, especially peripheral hormone
metabolism. ... In children with protein
energy malnutrition PEM, concentrations of all
three thyroid hormone binding proteins are
extremely low, and the serum T4 and T3 levels
decline abruptly, often into clearly
(S. Turkay, et al, 1995).
deficiency - "Several
cross-sectional studies have found that VAD
(Vitamin A deficiency) increases
the risk for goiter. In Senegalese adults and Ethiopian children there was a strong negative
correlation between increasing
severity of goiter and serum retinol (Vitamin
A). "Another study
(double-blind, randomized, 10-month trial) was
done to determine the effects of Vitamin A
deficiency and vitamin A
supplementation on thyroid function in an area
of endemic goiter. During the
(nutritional) intervention, mean
thyroglobulin, median TSH, and the
goiter rate significantly decreased in the
Vitamin A-treated group compared
with those in the placebo group....
The findings indicate that Vitamin A
deficiency in severely Iodine deficiency
increases TSH stimulation and thyroid size and
reduces the risk for
hypothyroidism. ...In areas of
endemic goiter, micronutrient status can be an
important determinant of iodine and
thyroid metabolism (7).
(Michael B. Zimmermann, et al,, 2004,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism).
Deficiencies of selenium
and iron (4)
can act in concert with iodine
deficiency to impair thyroid metabolism and
modify the response to prophylactic
"Magnesium is typically deficient in hypothyroidism"
(Raymond Peat, PhD, 2010).
Tyrosine deficiency - The thyroid gland makes thyroid hormones
from the amino acid L-tyrosine and iodine (infertilityworkshop.com).
Caffeine and other
stimulants interfere with T3
and adrenal hormone metabolism while in the
increases the metabolic effects of
hypothyroidism in a dose-dependent
way. This may be explained by alteration
of both thyroid function and hormone
action. ... Results Among the women
with subclinical hypothyroidism, the
smokers had a higher mean ...serum
thyrotropin concentration ...and a
higher ratio of serum triiodothyronine to
serum free thyroxine (by 30
percent,...) than the nonsmokers"
(Beat Müller, M.D., et al).
depresses TH levels and produces an chronic
underlying hypothyroidism as well as low
adrenal hormone levels. The hormonal
imbalances due to smoking may contribute to
the severity of withdrawal symptoms in smokers
trying to quit. Research shows that nicotine
increases the synthesis of T3 from T4 in the
study showed the "antithyroid action of
cigarette smoking products ... Thiocyanate
concentrations (from smoking tobacco)
equivalent to serum levels of smokers showed
three independent antithyroid actions: (i)
inhibition of iodide transport, (ii)
inhibition of iodine organification, and (iii)
increased iodide efflux"
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh).
procedures such as surgery, radiation, certain
drugs, can cause hypothyroidism. "High-dose
radiation for cancers of the head or neck and
for Hodgkin's disease causes hypothyroidism in
up to 65% of patients within 10 years after
"People who have been treated
with radiotherapy for acne (a common treatment
in the 1960s) may have an increased risk of
thyroid cancer" (Health.News).
surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism,
withdrawal of antithyroid medication,
radioactive iodine, vigorous palpation of the
thyroid gland in hyperthyroid patients' can
trigger Thyroid storm
A Manifold, DO).
Medicinal drugs such as aspirin
(decreased protein binding and subsequent
increases in free T3 and T4 levels have been
reported with aspirin usage). Other
thyroid-damaging drugs include insulin,
radioactive iodine, (synthetic) thyroid
salicylates, estrogen therapy. Depressed
levels may occur during therapy with the antithyroid drugs propranolol,
(inorganic) iodine can cause hyperthyroidism.
Drugs include amiodarone (cordarone), interferon-alpha, and, rarely,
Lithonate), excess (inorganic) iodine,
as may occur in people taking certain
expectorants, or iodine-containing contrast
agents for x-ray studies may cause
"Drugs used for treating epilepsy, such as
phenytoin and carbamazepine, can reduce thyroid levels. Certain
antidepressants may cause hypothyroidism, although this is rare.
Interferons and interleukins are used for treating hepatitis, multiple
sclerosis, and other conditions. Evidence suggests that these drugs
increase antibodies that put patients at risk for hypo- or
hyperthyroidism. Some drugs used in cancer chemotherapy, such as
sunitinib (Sunent) or imatinib (Gleevec), can also cause or worsen
Withdrawal of antithyroid medication
Chemicals, man-made or environmental
– "Experts believe that pollutants are a more
important factor. Pollutant chemicals like
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins
have been shown to interfere with thyroid
function and are more prevalent in
industrialized countries where thyroid disease
levels are high"
"Chlorine, fluoride block iodine receptors in the thyroid gland,
resulting in reduced iodine-containing hormone production'
(Balch, MD, p. 214).
"Two autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves'
thyroiditis, are thought to be
inherited, but have not been linked positively
to any genes" (Phillips).
newborns (known as congenital
hypothyroidism) occurs in one in every 3,000 -
4,000 births, making it the most common hormonal disorder in infants. In
90% of these cases, it persists throughout
– "Autoimmune thyroid
disease, either hyperthyroidism or
hypothyroidism, is also linked to
post-traumatic stress disorder and is often
first observed clinically after periods of
prolonged stress. ... Smokers and other
substance abusers should be watched for
hypothyroidism (and urged to quit), as
stimulants and depressants both can affect TH
"the adrenal glands, the front line in the stress reaction... show wear
and tear and become depleted, this frequently leads to an impairment in
the thyroid gland, which can cause a further decline in energy level and
What is the medical approach to treating
hypothyroidism is a risk after thyroid
surgery, radioablation, or thyroiditis" (medicine.com,
"Graves' disease is
treated by suppressing or killing (removing)
the thyroid and then stabilizing the patient
on thyroid hormone replacements"
A "Dutch study discussed the long-term complaints
and psychosocial problems after remission from hyperthyroidism. More than
three hundred treated hyperthyroid patients were studied, ... approximately one third of the total
sample had a score exceeding that seen in 80%
of normal females. Lack of energy was
evident in 53% of respondents. More than one
third of patients with a full-time job were
unable to resume the same work after
Moore). Thyroid destruction requires
the use (possibly permanently) of antithyroid drugs or iodides to avoid
thyrotoxic crisis" (originaldrugs.com,
iodine therapy is the most widely used permanent treatment of
hyperthyroidism in the United States. ... "By giving radioactive iodine,
cells in the thyroid are damaged or destroyed and are unable to produce
further thyroid hormone" (originaldrugs.com,
"Up to half or more of
patients who receive radioactive iodide
treatments for an overactive thyroid develop
permanent hypothyroidism within a year of
therapy. This is the standard treatment for
Graves' disease, which is the most common form
of hyperthyroidism, a condition caused
by excessive secretion of thyroid
"Evidence that its incidence might be increasing was apparent from two
recent studies. ...Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 mo and 69%
within 1 yr of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher
incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of 1-131 in the 1970s
as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s" (jnm.snmjournals.org).
Other possible side effects and complications of radioactive iodine
therapy include metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth,
tightness in throat,
sore throat, pain in the neck; nausea, vomiting, constipation
or diarrhea; fatigue; abnormally high
or abnormally low thyroid levels; flushing;
decreased taste; radiation thyroiditis; worsening of thyroid eye
involves removing part of the thyroid gland. Possible side effects
could include hypothyroidism or hyperthyroid relapse; temporary or
permanent hypoparathyroidism or laryngeal paralysis. The
anesthesia and antibiotics used in surgery can cause a severe fungal
infection that can damage the immune system and affect moods and
Drug therapy includes the use of
beta-blocking agents and antithyroid drugs (ATD).
*"Beta-blockers (e.g., Inderal, Tenormin, Lopressor) are used to
immediately relieve the symptoms caused by excessive thyroid hormones. ...
These drugs won't reduce the
thyroid hormone levels in the blood. However, they greatly improve
hyperthyroidism symptoms until thyroid hormones levels are reduced by other
therapies. ... (Beta-blockers) do not cure the hyperthyroidism." (originaldrugs.com,
Possible side effects include cold hands and
feet, tiredness and sleep disturbance (nightmares), dizziness, wheezing,
digestive tract problems, skin rashes, dry eyes, erectile dysfunction or
impotence. "Beta-blockers, used to treat hypertension, are associated with
an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, ... "Cardiorespiratory
arrest in a healthy volunteer after a single l dose of 80 mg of the
beta-blocker propranolol" (Rover MD, et al, Neurobiol
Learn Mem. 2010 Sep 6). Higher rate of cataract in eye" (Dr.
G. L. Kanthan Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:1210-1214).
*"Antithyroid drugs interfere with the ability of the thyroid gland to
synthesize its hormones. They gradually reduce the thyroid hormone levels
over 2-8 weeks or longer, and are usually given in high doses until the
thyroid gland functions normally (becomes euthyroid). The treatment with
anti-thyroid medications usually continues at least a year and often longer"
The most commonly used medications include
methimazole (Tapazole), propylthiouracil (PTU), and carbimazole"
has a "high relapse rate (relapse is
more likely in smokers, patients with large goiters, and patients with
positive thyroid-stimulating antibody levels at the end of therapy"
Possible side effects include serious liver damage, rare cholestasis
(failure of bile flow), allergic reactions, such as rash, fever, and
arthralgia, agranulocytosis (a condition in which the white blood cells,
which fight infection, disappear from the body, manifested by fever and sore
* Propylthiouracil (PTU) "can cause serious
liver damage. PTU can cause elevated liver enzymes (30%), and immunoallergic
Possible side effects include liver injury
resulting in hepatitis, liver failure, a need for liver transplantation or
death. Inhibition of
myelopoiesis (agranulocytosis, granulopenia, and thrombocytopenia), aplastic
anemia, drug fever, a lupus-like syndrome (including splenomegaly and
vasculitis), periartentis, and hypoprothrombinemia, bleeding,
nephritis, glomerulonephritis, interstitial pneumonitis, exfoliative
dermatitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis syndrome associated with the
presence of anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), rapidly
progressive glomerulonephritis (crescentic and pauci-immune necrotizing
glomerulonephritis), acute renal failure; pulmonary infiltrates or alveolar
hemorrhage; skin ulcers; and leucocytoclastic vasculitis. "Minor adverse
reactions include skin rash, urticaria, nausea, vomiting, epigastric
distress, arthralgia, paresthesias, loss of taste, taste perversion,
abnormal loss of hair, myalgia, headache, pruritus, drowsiness, neuritis,
edema, vertigo, skin pigmentation, jaundice, sialadenopathy,
lymphadenopathy, drowsiness; enlarged salivary glands; feeling of whirling
motion; headache; itching; muscle pain; swelling; swollen or painful lymph
nodes, severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty
breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or
tongue); blood cell changes; fever; sore throat; unusual bleeding or
bruising. (drugs.com). Also possible,
hypersensitivity; antivitamin K activity; may potentiate
activity of oral anticoagulants, Unsafe in pregnancy.
hormone replacements -
"Hashimoto's thyroiditis is treated with
thyroid hormone replacements.
depression, mania, fatigue, panic attacks,
migraines, memory loss,
high cholesterol, reactive hypoglycemia,
difficulty concentrating or thinking, brain
anger, constipation, dry
coarse skin, dry or brittle hair,
hair loss, enlarged neck or presence of
shortness of breath (dyspnea) or difficulty
infertility, heavy and irregular periods,
intolerance to cold, weight gain, small or
shrunken thyroid gland (late in the disease),
joint stiffness, swelling of the
face ("moon face) ,
muscle weakness and/or cramps, increased
menstrual flow, and increased risk of
(Generic name: Levothyroxine, Other brand
names: Levothroid, Levoxyl, Unithroid) -
Synthroid side effects could include one or more of the
following: hair loss, allergic reaction such as difficulty breathing;
closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives; vomiting; chest pain,
irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath,
tremor, nervousness, irritability; headache;
insomnia; diarrhea; changes in appetite;
weight loss; leg cramps; menstrual
irregularities; fever; sweating; heat
"Children may have
an increase in pressure within the skull.
Excessive dosage or a too rapid increase in
dosage may lead to overstimulation of the
thyroid gland. Symptoms of overstimulation:
Abdominal cramps, anxiety, changes in
appetite, change in menstrual periods, chest
pain, diarrhea, emotional instability,
fatigue, fever, flushing, hair loss, headache,
heart attack or failure, heat intolerance,
hyperactivity, increased heart rate, irregular
heartbeat, irritability, muscle weakness,
nausea, nervousness, palpitations, shortness
of breath, sleeplessness, sweating, tremors,
vomiting, weight loss,... seizures... Although
Synthroid will speed up your metabolism, it is
not effective as a weight-loss drug and should
not be used as such. An overdose may cause
life-threatening side effects, especially if
you take Synthroid with an
appetite-suppressant medication... If you have
diabetes, or if your body makes insufficient
adrenal corticosteroid hormone, Synthroid will
tend to make your symptoms worse...
Postmenopausal women on long-term Synthroid
therapy may suffer a loss of bone density,
increasing the danger of osteoporosis (brittle
bones)... An overdose of Synthroid can produce
the same symptoms of overstimulation listed
under "Synthroid side effects" Confusion and
disorientation are also possible, and there
have been reports of stroke, shock, coma, and
* Sodium iodide -
Documented hypersensitivity; pulmonary edema;
bronchitis; tuberculosis; hyperkalemia, increases lithium toxicity by producing
additive hypothyroid effects, Prolonged use
may result in hypothyroidism; caution in renal
failure and GI obstruction; iododerma, coryza,
cough, nausea, rhinorrhea, and parotiditis may
A Manifold, DO).
* "Methimazole (Tapazole - Documented hypersensitivity; antivitamin K activity and may potentiate
activity of oral anticoagulants, Unsafe in
pregnancy, Rashes are common; agranulocytosis
may occur; ... may
cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding
* "Lugol solution -- Inhibits thyroid
hormone secretion., Documented
hypersensitivity; pulmonary edema; bronchitis;
tuberculosis; hyperkalemia, Increases lithium
toxicity by inducing additive hypothyroid
effects, Prolonged use may result in
hypothyroidism; caution in renal failure or GI
A Manifold, DO).
Levothyroxine, a drug commonly used to
treat thyroid conditions, causes up to 13%
bone loss", according to a study done at the
University of Massachusetts
(Balch, MD, p. 214).
"Complications as a result of induced hypemetabolic state may include
cardiac failure and death due to arrhythmia or failure" (PDR
What are the safe natural alternative
Thyroid disorders may be often hereditary, however, according to
many genetic scientists, “Your DNA isn't your destiny“
is often believed that the genetic code of a person … determines the
physical makeup of that individual. For the most part, this is true.
However, there are other factors which can modify the expression of the
genetic code and alter the physical expression of a trait“
“Gene expression is a turning point for the gene, when something happens at
a certain point in time. A clear example of this is the transition of a
caterpillar into a butterfly. The genes are no different before or after the
metamorphosis, but certain genes have expressed themselves to make the
change a reality. … this gene expression is guided in large part by
nutrition. If the caterpillar doesn’t get the proper nutrients, the genes
for change will not express, and the caterpillar will not ever become a
butterfly. The same holds true for humans, perhaps in a slightly less
dramatic fashion. If you do not get the proper nutrition, your genes will
not fully express themselves, and you will not reach your full potential“
“It is through epigenetic marks that environmental factors like diet, stress
and prenatal nutrition can make an imprint on genes that is passed from one
generation to the next”
“Diet and nutrition are examples of factors which may affect and even
overcome genetic expression"
"Natural medicines allow the promotion of
healthy thyroid ..., but they do not have
the side effects that hormone replacement
therapy does. ...The best course of treatment
for Hashimoto's Disease (or any other disorder) is through simple
lifestyle changes and natural medicines."
A Wellness Consultation will provide
information on how to eliminate the causes of disease
that pertain to you, and on the right
foods, herbs, and nutritional supplements
that will work best to
nourish the thyroid and other affected
organs back to health and proper
functioning, leaving you free of all those terrible symptoms.
A wellness consultation
with Dr. Laurie Lynch can give you the knowledge to attain your ideal
health, weight, energy, and happiness. With a $ 200 Wellness
Consultation you get:
- a Wellness
Program tailored just for your specific health needs,
schedule that shows you how to space your meals and how to combine
foods, herbs and supplements so you digest better, have more energy,
mental clarity, and happiness.
- You also
receive a FREE 30 page recipe book, "Healing Food Preparation",
- FREE articles
published by Dr. Lynch on health issues that pertain to you,
phone questions, encouragement, further information, and coaching
are all included in the price.
clients that have followed my individualized program, have all regained
their proper thyroid function as well as overall health, energy, and
happiness. A couple of excerpts from client testimonies follow.
Laurie is the best alternative health care provider I have been to.
My thyroid was underactive and I was taking drugs for it, but they
didn't help. When I came to Dr. Lynch and followed her program for
a few months, my thyroid tested out as healed." --Patricia from
thyroid condition is fine and I am continuing my food regimen." --Fred
proper diet and the right nutritional supplements, it usually takes
about 3 or 4 months for the thyroid to heal itself. It took me three
months for my thyroid to return to normal functioning. So hang in there,
you can heal too. –
Call for an appointment @ the Living Well Health &
Education Center, 3342 Legion Rd., Hope
Mills, N.C., or for a telephone
Dr. Lynch works
with clients all over the world by phone or in her office.
Call now to start on the right path to
obtain your ideal health, weight, memory, energy,
NSW Health, 1999, BHC-5425)
Disease, Basic Thyroid Information,
Georgetown University Department of Medicine,
* 2008, http://www.uic.edu/com/eye/LearningAboutVision/EyeFacts/ThyroidEyeDisease.shtml
Hashimotos Disease, Thyroiditis Herbal
* AbbottDiagnostics. http://www.abbottdiagnostics.com/Your_Health/Thyroid/function.cfm).
Michael B. Zimmermann, Rita Wegmüller,
Christophe Zeder, Nourredine Chaouki and Toni
The Effects of Vitamin A Deficiency and
Vitamin A Supplementation on Thyroid Function
in Goitrous Children, The Journal of Clinical
Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 89, No. 11
Beat Müller, M.D., Henryk Zulewski,
M.D., Peter Huber, Ph.D., John G. Ratcliffe,
M.D., and Jean-Jacques Staub, M.D., Impaired
Action of Thyroid Hormone Associated with
Smoking in Women with Hypothyroidism, PMID:
1283478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE])
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism,
Wadsworth VA Medical Center, Los Angeles,
California, Examination of antithyroid effects
of smoking products in cultured thyroid
follicles: only thiocyanate is a potent
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh).
* CLINICAL SCIENCES, The occurrence of hypothyroidism after radio active
iodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiters a well-described entity, http://jnm.snmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/19/2/180.pdf
Diana Kohnle, Radioactive Iodine Treatment for
AJ Giannini. The Biological Foundations
of Clinical Psychiatry. New Hyde Park, NY.
Medical Examination Publishing Co.,
James F. Balch, MD, 1989, Prescription for Nutritional Healing, p. 211
Daniela Cihakova MD, PhD, Hashimoto's
Peter Hauser et al., Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity
Disorder in People with Generalized Resistance
to Thyroid Hormone,
* The HealthCentralNetwork, Inc,
Health Encyclopedia - Diseases and Conditions article, “Graves' Disease -
Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention, .http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/489/main.html
S. Turkay, S.Kus, A. Gokalp, E.
Baskin, A.Onal, EFFECTS OF PROTEIN ENERGY
MALNUTRITION ON CIRCULATING THYROID HORMONES,
the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of
Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas,
LB Marangell, TA Ketter, MS George, PJ
Pazzaglia, AM Callahan, P Parekh, PJ Andreason,
B Horwitz, P Herscovitch and RM Post,
Inverse relationship of peripheral thyrotropin-stimulating
hormone levels to brain activity in mood
disorders, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md. 20892, USA.,
2, E. D. London2,
4, D. H. S. Silverman3,
P. C. Whybrow2,
Pharmacopsychiatry 2003; 36: 215-221 DOI:
and Mood Modulation in Affective Disorder:
Insights from Molecular Research and
Functional Brain Imaging
* Arem, Ridha,
"The Thyroid Solution", Ballantine Books, New
* Fahrenfort JJ, Wilterdink AM, and van der
Veen, EA,"Long-term residual complaints and
psychosocial sequelae after remission of
hyperthyroidism," in Psychoneuroendocrinology,
2000,Feb; 25(2): 201-211.
Elaine Moore, Graves' Disease, http://www.suite101.com/article.cmf/graves_disease/66568
* (Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010 Sep 6. Rover MD,
Noorden MS, Nieuwenhuis S, Wee NJ. Cognitive Psychology Unit, Leiden
University; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition
* Dr. G. L. Kanthan Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:1210-1214
* Ray Sahelian, M.D., Beta Blocker medication side effects
* Lorie Huston, 2009, Examining How Canine Nutrition Can Alter Genetic
Expression in Dogs,
* John Cloud, 2010, Why Your DNA Isn't Your Destiny, Time.com
Causes of Illness