Sources of Nutrients

"All elements that are combined in man exist in vegetables; therefore, if one of the constituents that compose the body of man  diminishes, and he partakes of foods in which there is much of  that  diminished constituent, then the equilibrium  will  be established, and a cure will be obtained" (Baha'i Scriptures; AB, SAQ pp 257-259).

 "Ever since the Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Linus Pauling first promoted “megadoses” of essential nutrients 40 years ago, Americans have been devoted to their vitamins. Today about half of all adults use some form of dietary supplement, at a cost of $23 billion a year" (Pope).  Many people worry about whether they're getting enough vitamins in their food.  Some people think they can just take vitamin pills and not have to worry about whether they're eating nutritious food.  Some wonder why we need vitamins at all. Some wonder about the safety and quality of the various vitamin supplements on the market, and the best sources of vitamins.  Nutrition "experts" often disagree about almost everything, and many people just don't know what to believe. A better understanding of vitamins could help alleviate these concerns.

What are vitamins and why do we need them?
Sources of vitamins:
     synthetic verses natural pills, verses whole foods, - scientific studies

What are the best sources of vitamins?
What are minerals and why do we need them?
What are the best sources of minerals?

What are antioxidants?
What are the minimum daily requirements for vitamins and minerals?

What are vitamins and why do we need them?
Vitamin means "essential to life", and they consist of a variety of organic compounds that are essential to life and health. Vitamins work with other types of organic compounds such as enzymes to regulate metabolism and other biochemical processes, and to prevent certain diseases. They are present in natural foods and some are produced in the body. Vitamins are needed in smaller quantities than the other essential elements, carbohydrates, protein, fats and water. Vitamins B and C dissolve in water and cannot be stored in the body so they must be replenished every day. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are soluble only in oil and can be stored in the liver and fat. 
Prolonged overdosing of Vitamins A, D, and K can cause toxic effects unless obtained from natural plant sources. Some vitamins are destroyed by heat, air, light, and various chemicals including medicinal drugs that "either stop the absorption of nutrients or interfere with the cells ability to use them" (Mindell, p. 267).

*  Vitamin A is classified into 2 forms: (1) preformed vitamin A (retinol), obtained from animal products, is the most biologically active form of vitamin A; and (2) provitamin A carotenoids, from plant sources, that are made into retinol in the liver. Retinol form animal products can have toxic effects when consumed in excess, while carotenoids from whole plants foods are manufactured by the body into the amount of retinol needed at that time, so overdose is not a problem with the plant sources.

  •  Functions of Vitamin A  include promotion of good vision (particularly night vision), promotion of healthy skin, mucus  membranes, strong bone, soft tissue, and teeth formation, growth, reproduction, cell division and cell differentiation, sperm production in males, prevention of spontaneous abortion in females, promotes lactation, and proper prenatal development; good digestion, fat storage, and protein utilization; aid production of red and white corpuscles in the blood, aid steroid production "Even though androgens are used as promoters of prostate cancer, vitamin A both boosts androgen production and powerfully inhibits prostate cancer" (Masterjohn, 2005).  It helps to regulate the immune system and may also help lymphocytes (type of white blood cell) better fight infection. Vitamin A is antioxidant and protects against pollution and cancer. Vitamin A is important in maintaining the integrity of epithelial cells that line hollow organs and glands and that make up the outer surface of the body, and slows the aging process.
  •  Deficiency of Vitamin A can lead to vision problems, dryness of the cornea, and night blindness; decreased immune response, increased respiratory tract diseases, various epithelial cancers, including skin, lungs, stomach and breast cancer; skin disorders such as acne; protein deficiency; premature aging; and osteoporosis.
  • Depletion of Vitamin A can be caused by oxygen, heat. alcohol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (in cooking oils and margarine) Vitamin A depletion can also be caused by various chemicals and drugs such as antacids, cold, pain, cholesterol, and allergy drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), gout medications.  "Drugs can alter the ability of the body to digest, absorb, synthesize, transport, store, metabolize or eliminate nutrients. This situation potentially can cause Nutrient Depletion. Quite often, a patient is then placed on additional medication to combat a new set of symptoms. The cascading effect of such an approach to disease management often leads to a reduction in the patient's quality of life" (Dawson).

*  Vitamin B Complex are co-enzymes that consist of a group of substances that work together.  At least thirteen B vitamins are found in our food.  B vitamins from food sources other than yeast (yeast can aggravate existing fungal infections and cause allergic reactions.), even in large amounts are non-toxic, since the body readily eliminates the excesses. However, taking high-dose individual B vitamin pills for extended periods can cause imbalance which could cause deficiency of the other B vitamins.

  •  Functions of B complex include regulating blood sugar levels and energy production, nerve improvement, improvement in mood swings, anxiety, depression; improvement in skin, hair, eyes, mouth, and liver and gastrointestinal muscle function.
  •  Deficiency of B complex symptoms include fatigue, irritability, nervousness, depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, sore (burning) mouth or tongue, cracks at the corners of the mouth; poor immune function; poor estrogen metabolism; anemia (especially from vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency), constipation, neuritis, skin problems, acne, hair loss, early graying of the hair, increased serum cholesterol, leg weakness, etc. 
  •  Depletion of B vitamins could be caused by "alcoholic beverages, cola drinks, most soft drinks ..., coffee and tea (caffeinated and decaffeinated), chocolate (cocoa), inorganic mineral water (tap, well, spring), polluted air, refined sugar and refined synthetic sugar substitutes, overcooking foods (particularly in excess of 130 degrees), freezing of foods, refined and processed foods, commercial synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and most drug medications, such as oral contraceptives, methylxanthines, aspirin (Salicylates)/other mild pain killers, anti-inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), antacids, antibiotics, anti-diabetic drugs, cardiovascular drugs, gout medications, HRT, ulcer medications, and theophylline" ( "B 6 deficiency might be worsened by use of hydralazine (for high blood pressure), 5penicillamine (used for rheumatoid arthritis and certain rare diseases), 6theophylline (an older drug for asthma), 7-11MAO inhibitors , 12Taking large amounts of a single B vitamin may cause a depletion of other Bs. Other causes of B vitamin depletion could include parasitic infections, gastric bypass surgery, and "any process that interferes with gastric acid production, such as prolonged use of acid suppressing medications" (Oh, RC and Brown, DL, 2003).

    B Complex consists of the following:

* B1 (thiamin) aids in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, growth and reproduction, improves circulation, aids in production of hydrochloric acid, blood formation, promotes normal appetite and proper digestion, contributes to the functioning of the nervous system, improves mental attitude; enhanses muscle tone for the heart, intestines, and stomach. 

Deficiency of thiamin
could result in  growth disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, constipation; fatigue, loss of appetite, paralysis, insomnia, mood swings and irritability. and Beriberi (reduced function of the lower extremities, nerve damage, heart problems, or brain damage). Korsakoff's psychosis (inability to form new memories, and/or poorly organized retrieval of old memories, apathy and emotional blandness); depression, decreased learning capacity, fatigue, and loss of appetite.

* B2 (riboflavin) is needed for growth, red blood cell and antibody production, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, cell respiration, and helps oxygen use by body tissues, promotes the health of the eyes, skin, nails, hair and nerves, and works with other B vitamins to use energy from  foods. 

Deficiency of riboflavin could result in cracks and sores at the corners of the mouth, dermatitis, oily skin, purplish tongue; itching, bloodshot, and burning eyes; digestive disturbances, diarrhea; retarded growth; sluggishness; and tremors.

* B3 (niacin, Nicotinic Acid) is needed for growth and reproduction; to convert protein, fat and carbohydrates into energy, for formation of DNA, for hormone production, for tissue respiration, helps maintain a healthy skin, tongue, aids production of Hydrochloric acid for digestion, helps regulate cholesterol, reduces hypertension, aids circulation, and promotes health of the nervous system and brain.  

Deficiency of niacin could result in negative personality changes, nervousness, headaches, muscular weakness, fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, bad breath, canker sores, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal and skin disorders, and Pellagra.

* B4 (Adenine) "is no longer considered a true vitamin or part of the Vitamin B complex. However, two B vitamins, niacin and riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively" ( Adenine aids in cellular respiration and metabolism, the synthesis of nucleic acids, in the formation of "adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and protein synthesis" (, Adenine "acts as a co-enzyme with other vitamins to enhance metabolism. Helps to alleviate fatigue and debility. Increases antibody formation in counteracting infection. Acts as a precursor for assimilation of other B-vitamins. Strengthens the immune system response. Promotes cell formation and normal growth. Prevents cellular mutation and free radical formation. Helps to balance blood sugar levels. Increases transit time of the intestinal tract", ... helps improve lactation for a nursing mother (

Deficiency of Adenine
could result in "retarded growth rate, blood and skin disorders, constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, muscle weakness, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), sensitivity to insulin, physical and mental depression, anemia, fatigue, vertigo (dizziness), allergies, prone to infections, weakened immune system response"

* B5 (Pantothenic acid) aids in production of antibodies and adrenal hormones (stress reducing hormones), the catabolism of amino acids and fatty acids, the synthesis of fatty acids, lipids, cholesterol, and the production of Coenzyme A and the antioxidant glutathione.  It aids in vitamin utilization, helps metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy, and aids gastrointestinal function. "It is known that blood levels of pantothenic acid are significantly reduced in rheumatoid arthritis patients. A clinical trial tested 50 mg daily of injected calcium pantothenate. Blood levels rose to normal, and significant symptomatic relief was felt by many of the test subjects. When the pantothenate was withdrawn, symptoms returned. The best results were achieved in a subgroup of vegetarians. The results of this, and other studies involving wound-healing, exercise performance, and the treatment of Hepatitis A, suggest that we are all advised to keep our levels of Vitamin B5 from declining" (

Deficiency of pantothenic acid can lead to stress, depression, and anxiety.  Other deficiency symptoms could include painful & burning feet, skin abnormalities, retarded growth, dizzy spells, digestive disturbances, vomiting, stomach stress, muscle cramps , and

* B6 (Pyridoxine) "is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism" (  is important for protein and amino acid metabolism., for and the synthesis of RNA and DNA, for red blood cell formation, normal cell growth and division, for proper functioning of the nervous system and immune system, to help relieve PMS symptoms, and to help prevent heart disease. Pyridoxine is helpful in maintain Potassium and Sodium balance, and alleviating fluid retention.  

Deficiency of B6
can manifest as nervousness, slow learning, insomnia, skin eruptions, dermatitis, mouth disorders, loss of muscular control, anemia, muscular weakness and cramping, slow learning, hair loss, and fluid retention.

* B7 (Biotin) aids in the utilization of protein, folic acid, Pantothenic acid, and Vitamin B-12, improves glucose metabolism, helps regulate cholesterol levels, strengthens hair and nails and increases energy levels. 

Deficiency of biotin could lead to extreme exhaustion, drowsiness, depression, loss of appetite, muscle pain, grayish skin color, and birth defects.

* B8 (Inositol), is a water soluble fatty lipid "present in greater concentration in the cells in and around the central nervous system, including brain cells, retinal cells, , bone marrow and intestinal cells, etc. "According to an abstract published by Lisa Colodny, Pharm D. and Ronald L. Hoffman, M.D. ... Inositol is ... a significant mediator of calcium mobilization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Modifying this mobilization of calcium may be effective in treating some CNS disorders like Alzheimer's disease, depression, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and as an analgesic for pain control" (, 2005).  Inositol is required for the formation of healthy cells, release of calcium in cells. hair growth, the transport of fats within cells, lecithin formation, and metabolism of fats. It helps prevent hardening of the arteries, diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, reduces edema in from burns, and the transmission of messages between neural cells. Inositol can help alleviate insomnia, bipolar mood disorder, eating disorders, anxiety, panic disorders, and neuro-psychological disorders. 

Deficiency of inositol could lead to high blood pressure and cholesterol, constipation, eczema, gastritis, hair loss, and/or eye abnormalities.

* B9 (Folate, Folic acid) reduces risk of developing a type of birth defect that affects the brain and spinal cord.  Folic acid works with Vitamin B12 to promote the development of new cells, and fetal development.  Folic acid aids in sugar and amino acid metabolism could protect against auto-immune disorders, depression and anxiety, gastrointestinal disorders, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular disease. 

Deficiency of folic acid
could be caused by drugs. "Folic Acid is a nutrient that is often depleted by drugs. Ross Pelton and James B LaValle claim that it can be depleted by some 30 different types of drugs, from Aspirin and magnesium containing antacids to stronger medications such as anticonvulsants, cardiovascular drugs and oral contraceptives. Some of the possible effects of Folic Acid deficiency can include Megaloblastic anemia, birth defects, elevated homocysteine levels, fatigue and even increased rates of colon and colorectal cancer" (Dawson). Other deficiency symptoms could include sore red tongue, gastrointestinal problems, retarded growth, Vitamin B-12 deficiency, breast cancer, and pre-mature gray hair.

* B10 (Para-Aminobenzoic Acid, PABA ) is an intermediate in bacterial synthesis of folate, and a constituent of folate, helps in the utilization of pantothenic acid, in the metabolism of protein, assist in formation of red blood cells, helps reduce pain from burns, reduce stress, helps restore gray hair to its natural color, improve skin and reduce wrinkles.

"Deficiency of PABA can lead to scleroderma (hardening of skin), weeping eczema, skin infections, and patchy pigment loss in skin (vitiligo)" (

* B11 (Choline) "is a chemical precursor or "building block" needed to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and research suggests that memory, intelligence and mood are mediated at least in part by acetylcholine metabolism in the brain" (  Choline is needed for nerve transmission, hormone production, lecithin formation, structural integrity, acetylcholine synthesis, It helps improve nervous disorders such as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. Choline works with inositol for fat and cholesterol metabolism, is a fat emulsifier that prevents buildup of cholesterol, , and aids gallbladder and liver functions, aids the liver in detoxification, reduces excess fat in the liver, and is needed. 

Deficiency of choline can result in impaired memory and brain function, cirrhosis and fatty liver,
hardening of the arteries, high cholesterol, and hypertension.
* B12 (cobalamin) works with folic acid to make new cells, red blood cells, and DNA, and helps prevent anemia. B12 is necessary for proper digestion, calcium absorption, protein synthesis, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and increases energy. It helps the immune system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, improves neurologic disorders, Improves memory and concentration, promotes growth in children, and maintains fertility. 

Deficiency of B12 could cause brain damage, degeneration of spinal cord, memory loss, hallucinations,  nervousness, neuritis, depression, abnormal gait, lack of balance, pernicious anemia, poor appetite, retarded growth, and fatigue.

* B13? (pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)) is a newly discovered vitamin believed to belong to the B vitamins group that appears to plays an important role in fertility (Reuters;

*  Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) occurs in most plants and animals. "Most ... animals synthesize ascorbic acid from D-glucose or D-galactose. A majority of animals produce relatively high levels of ascorbic acid from glucose in liver. However, guinea pigs, fruit eating bats, apes and humans can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to the absence of the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, in humans ascorbic acid has to be supplemented through food and or as tablets" (K Akhilender Naidu, 2003).

  •   Functions of Vitamin C include promotion of normal cell growth, repair, and functioning; formation of healthy bones, teeth, cartilage, skin, capillary walls, and collagen (the basic protein of connective tissue); enhanced the availability and absorption of iron; antioxidant protection against pollution, cancer, infections, aid in immune function; healing of wounds, scar tissue, and fractures; nourishment of the adrenal gland and thyroid, production of anti-stress hormones, and the thyroid hormone thyroxine, and other hormones; enzyme maintenance; promotion of healthy gums; aid in production of interferon; prevention of cholesterol gall stones , regulation of cholesterol and blood pressure, prevention of atherosclerosis; prevention of blood clots and bruising; and utilization of other nutrients, such as iron, B vitamins, vitamins A and E, calcium, and the amino acids, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. "Ascorbic acid ... is essential for ... carnitine and neurotransmitters biosynthesis" (Naida).
  •  Depletion of Vitamin C can be caused by oxidation, air, heat, light, alkalis, copperware, alcohol, stress, fever, infection, drugs such as  "aspirin, alcohol,  analgesics, antidepressants, anticoagulants, ...diabetic drugs, ..oral contraceptives, anti-inflammatory drugs (includes corticosteroids, NSAIDS)...  and steroids may reduce levels of vitamin C in the body" (Balch, p. 9), as well as antibiotics, diuretics, cardiovascular drugs, cortisone, and other steroid drugs. "Cooking losses of ascorbic acid depend on degree of heating, surface area exposed to water, oxygen, pH and presence of transition metals... and easily destroyed by prolonged storage and over processing of food." (Naida).
  •  Deficiency of Vitamin C can cause Scurvy (spongy, swollen bleeding gums, loose teeth, bleeding into the skin and mucus membranes), anemia, impaired digestion, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, swollen or painful joints, slow-healing wounds & fractures, dry skin, open sores on the skin, fatigue, depression, and tooth decay.

*   Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, that occur in several forms:
Vitamin D1
molecular compound of ergocalciferol with lumisterol, 1:1
Vitamin D2
ergocalciferol is made from ergosterol (an alcohol from irridiated fungi)
Vitamin D3
cholecalciferol is made from a cholerterol derivative in the skin when exposed to sunlight, also found in fish and egg yolks.
Vitamin D4
Vitamin D5
sitocalciferol (made from 7-dehydrositosterol)

The two major forms are vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 which are known collectively as calciferol. Calciferol is not in a usable form, however, the liver and kidney help convert vitamin D to its active form calcitriol. Following this conversion, calcitriol is released into the circulation, and by binding to a carrier protein in the plasma, is transported to various organs ( 

  •  Functions of Vitamin D include calcium and phosphorus absorption and use, growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, and several organ systems; maintenance of a stable nervous system and normal heart function, regulation of immunity; working with vitamins A, E, and K, to aid vitamin A assimilation, aid in preventing colds, conjunctivitis, etc.; inhibition of calcitonin release from the thyroid, inhibition of bone resorption and cartilage degradation; inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion; modulation of neuromuscular function; and reduction of inflammation. 
  •  Depletion of Vitamin D can be caused alcohol, and by various chemicals and drugs such as antacids, steroid hormones and anti-inflammatory drugs (Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), ulcer medications, barbiturates, steroids, weight-loss drug orlistat (brand names Xenical® and alli™), and the cholesterol-lowering drug cholestyramine (Questran®, LoCholest®, and Prevalite®), elepsy drugs (phenobarbital and phenytoin (brand name Dilantin®), diuretics, mineral oil, Phenobarbital, sun screens, and washing with soap (removes the skin's oil so vitamin D cannot be manufactured by the body), excess or imbalance of  Vitamins A, D, E, and K; .
  •  Deficiency of vitamin D can be caused by insufficient sun exposure; intestinal disorders; liver, kidney, and gallbladder malfunction. "Vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to an increased susceptibility to several chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, tuberculosis, cancer, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, seasonal affective disorder, peripheral artery disease, cognitive impairment which includes memory loss and foggy brain, and several autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes" ( D deficiency can cause rickets (soft deformed bones in children), osteomalacia (softening of bones in adults), improper healing of fractures, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and cramps, fatigue, retention of phosphorous in the kidneys, severe tooth decay; neurodevelopmental conditions, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, mental retardation.  

*  Vitamin E (Tocopherol) is an oil soluable antioxidant that works with vitamin C. There are several forms of Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol can come from either natural vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol, or RRR-alpha-tocopherol, which is found in food) or synthetic vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol), and beta-, delta-, and gamma-tocopherols, which occur in food.

  • Functions of Vitamin E include prevention of cell damage from lipid peroxydation, prevention of free radical formation, decrease in cellular aging due to oxidation, protection of white and red blood cells, vitamin A, C, selenium, and unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation damage, improved immunity, prevention of cancer and cataracts, improved circulation, prevention or reduction of  cardiovascular disease, oxygen transport to the lungs, heart, and other organs and muscles, aid in bringing nourishment to cells; promotion of normal nerve development; wound healing, normal clotting, reduction of scarring; strengthening of capillary walls and protection of red blood cells from damaging toxins; maintenance of healthy membranes, reduction of breast cysts; prevention of  miscarriage, prevention or reduction of premenstrual syndrome; improved athletic performance; reduction of fatigue and muscle cramps; prevention of muscular dystrophy, reduction of calcium deposits in blood vessel walls, vasodilation; improved fertility; improvement in dry skin; and retardation of the aging process.  In experiments with rats, vitamin E was found necessary for fertility and lactation, when proteins, mineral salts, and vitamins A, B, and D were adequate  (Sure, B., 1924).
  •  Depletion of vitamin E can be caused by oxygen, ultraviolet light, heat, freezing, food processing, inorganic iron supplements,   rancid foods, chlorinated water, and cholesterol drugs.
  • Deficiency of vitamin E can cause rupture of red blood cells, hyperparathyroidism, degenerative changes in the heart and other muscles, abnormal fat deposits in muscles, loss of libido, reproductive disorders, anemia, fatigue, and dry skin.

     Vitamin F
    (essential fatty acids, EFAs) include alpha-linolenic acid (Omega 3) and linoleic acid (Omega 6) which are required by the body, but cannot be synthesizes by the body because humans lack the necessary enzymes, and therefore EFAs must be obtained from food. EFAs help form longer and more desaturated fatty acids.  Omega-3 fatty acids are derived from Linolenic Acid, and help produce eicosapentaenoic acid  (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-6 fatty acids are derived from Linoleic Acid, and help form gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA).
    "EPA and GLA synthesized from linoleic (Omega-6) acid are later converted into hormone-like compounds known as eicosanoids, which aid in many bodily functions including vital organ function and intracellular activity. ... A healthy human with good nutrition will convert linoleic acid into gamma linolenic acid (GLA), which will later be synthesized, with EPA from the Omega-3 group, into eicosanoids. The human body can make some long-chain PUFAs (arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA) from lineolate or lineolinate"
    ( Omega-9 fatty acid is a monounsaturated fat derived from Oleic Acid, and is not considered an essential fatty acid because it is produced in the body. However if the necessary enzymes or essential fatty acids are deficient, Omega 9 will not be produced and will have to be supplied in the diet.  Older people or people with a liver problem may not completely produce a sufficient amount.  
    "It is important to maintain an appropriate balance of omega-3 and omega-6 ... in the diet as these two substances work together to promote health.  Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation and most omega-6 fatty acids (if heat processed, and in clear containers, or used to cook with) tend to promote inflammation. An inappropriate balance of these essential fatty acids contributes to the development of disease while a proper balance helps maintain and even improve health"
  •  Functions of Vitamin F - "Essential fatty acids are necessary for hundreds of bodily processes. They support the cardiovascular, reproductive, immune and nervous systems. They also help burn more body fat" (Travis Van Slooten).  Fatty acids are needed for normal growth and behavior; healthy cell membranes; balanced hormone levels, insulin function, sperm formation, the female cycle, and pregnancy; proper immune function, reduced inflammation, lowered cancer risk; synthesis of tissue lipids, regulation of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, blood pressure, platelet stickiness, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein(a), regular heart beat, cleansing of arteries; are precursors of prostaglandins (hormone like compounds producing various metabolic effects in tissues, healthy skin and hair, nails; manufacture of sex and adrenal hormones; promote the growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria; aid in the transmission of nerve impulses; reduction of arthritis; PMS, reduction of menopausal symptoms; energy production, mental stamina; reduced fat production, increase fat burning and heat production, shift the body from burning glucose to burning fats, improved digestion; improved brain function and moods, stress reduction, improved symptoms in bipolar and obsessive-compulsive disorder,  Alzheimer's disease and autism; liver and kidney function; improved bone mineral retention, inhibits the development of osteoporosis; reduction of allergic symptoms; and speed the healing of injuries.
  •  Depletion of vitamin F can be caused by heat, air, and light, because exposure turns these oils into rancid trans-fats that cause free-radical damage. High circulating insulin levels can inhibited the release of essential fatty acids stored in adipose tissue. "Although most Americans obtain an excess of linoleic acid, often it is not converted to GLA because of metabolic problems caused by diets rich in sugar, alcohol, or trans fats from processed foods, as well as smoking, pollution, stress, aging, viral infections, and other illnesses such as diabetes" (Janine Fahri). Or it is often made ineffective and harmful by processing.
     Deficiency of vitamin F  
    * Omega 3 (LNA) deficiency symptoms could include growth retardation; weakness; vision problems, sensory neuropathy; learning disabilities, mental deterioration, and poor memory, behavioral disturbances; motor incoordination, tingling in extremities;  increased blood pressure and cholesterol, formation of blood clots, plasma DHA concentrations decreased, easy bruising; tissue inflammation, edema, decreased metabolic rate which could lead to obesity; dry skin; immune dysfunction resulting in slow healing and frequent infections; and diarrhea.  
    * Omega 6 (LA) deficiency symptoms could include eczema, hair loss; behavioral disturbances; damage to the kidneys, heart, circulatory system, liver, and immune system, susceptibility to infections, poor wound healing; arthritis; drying up of glands; miscarriages, male sterility; growth retardation; excessive water loss through the skin, excessive thirst, dry eyes, dry skin, eczema, dandruff, and brittle nails; and diarrhea. "Prolonged absence of LA in the diet is fatal"
    (Erasmus, pp. 44, 45).  Essential fatty acid deficiency symptoms (except death) can be reversed by adding EFAs to the diet.

    *  Vitamin K (Menadione)
    is fat-soluble, occurs primarily in plants and can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria in the small intestine if one is well nourished.
  • Functions of vitamin K include aiding the liver in synthesis of the blood clotting enzyme prothrombin, and conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver.
  • Depletion of vitamin K can be caused by heat, air, light, environmental pollution, x-rays, radiation, drugs such as  antibiotics; frozen foods, strong acids, alcohol, harsh alkalis, aspirin, and mineral oil.
  • Deficiency of vitamin K can cause diarrhea, and lead to celiac disease, sprue, colitis, easy bruising, and hemorrhaging.

*  Vitamin T is a little know vitamin.

  • Functions of vitamin T include blood coagulation, forming of platelets, prevention of anemia and hemophilia.
  • Depletion of vitamin T could be caused by depleted soils, distilled water, animal products, poor diet.
  • Deficiency of vitamin T could cause anemia and hemophilia (Mendell, p. 91).

*  Vitamin U is the least known vitamin.

  • Functions of vitamin U include healing ulcers.
  • Depletion of vitamin U could be caused by depleted soils, distilled water, animal products, poor diet.
  • Deficiency of vitamin U could contribute to ulcers.

Sources of vitamins:
Up until a few years ago, there were three general sources of vitamins, those made from synthetic chemicals, those made by extracting the isolated chemical from plant sources, called natural vitamins, and those obtained from whole foods.  However, the pharmaceutical industry was trying to eliminate their competition by trying to make nutritional supplements illegal. When that didn't work, they then bought out most supplement companies and most supplements were made to be ineffective and many actually harmful. Now even those vitamin companies that claim their vitamins are all natural buy synthetic chemical vitamins from one of five foreign pharmaceutical companies and add them to their "natural" ingredients and call them "natural" vitamins. 

I discovered this a few years ago when I suddenly began to feel ill, but couldn't pinpoint the problem.  So I began to eliminate all the usual foods and nutritional supplements I was consuming, and gradually add them back, one at a time.  It soon became apparent that the vitamins that I had been taking for years with good results, were now making me sick. About that time, I also received calls from numerous clients with the same story.  So I called all the vitamin companies I could find and talked to their manufacturers, and was told that all vitamins in the world are now made with synthetic chemicals or are genetically engineered (with tumor-causing bacteria and pathogenic viruses). or made from fungus (an underlying cause of most illnesses).  Following is a description of the various sources of vitamins with scientific studies their effects.

*   Synthetic vitamin pills are "vitamins produced in a laboratory from isolated chemicals that mirror their counterparts found in nature.  Although there are no major chemical differences between a vitamin found in food and one created in a laboratory, natural supplements do not contain other unnatural ingredients" (Balch), and synthetic vitamins don't contain the other co-factors that prevent toxicity and promote proper functioning.  Isolated synthetic vitamins made by the chemical/pharmaceutical companies are "composed of petroleum-derivatives, hydrogenated sugars, and/or industrially-processed rocks" (Thiel), and may contain coal tar, preservatives, lactose monohydrate (a major allergen), corn starch (usually genetically engineered)  magnesium stearate (a rancid oil sprayed on them to facilitate encapsulation), artificial coloring, preservatives, aspartame (the brain-damaging, cancer-causing artificial sweetener) or they may be genetically engineered with tumor-causing bacteria and pathogenic viruses, and they scramble our DNA.  The body cannot properly digest these synthetic chemicals that are lacking in the other needed synergistic components in the whole food.  Numerous scientific studies have shown that synthetic vitamins are not complete vitamins, are chemically and structurally different from those found in foods, and therefore, not effective. The synthetic vitamins may work in a lab, but not in humans. They can actually do harm, sometimes even worsening the illness they were used to treat.

"Mega doses of synthetic vitamins can have very serious toxic effects. ... When synthetic, or incomplete vitamins are introduced into the body, the body attempts to "build" a complete vitamin complex by adding the missing factors that it knows should be there, specifically minerals and other vitamin co-factors. This "building" process depletes the body's nutritional reserves, creating an overall deficiency. ... When it (the body) is saturated or overwhelmed with large amounts of synthetic vitamins or does not possess the cofactors necessary for creating fully-complexed supplements, it cannot convert the incomplete synthetic vitamins. It will then work to eliminate the synthetic vitamins through the kidneys, skin and the other elimination organs. This is the reason why the majority of all synthetic vitamins are quickly eliminated by the body and not utilized. ... This process results in an overall negative health effect while minimizing any gains that could have been achieved by the supplement were it in a usable form to begin with" (Brian Clement, PhD, NMD, 2007).

Here are some examples from scientific studies using synthetic vitamins:

  •  Excess vitamin A is cancerous (Mayne, S.T. et al, Dietary retinol : prevention or promotion of carcinogenesis in humans ? Cancer Causes Control 1991 / 2 (6) / / 389-390).  A review of 67 health studies conducted by the Copenhagen University hospital in Denmark found that taking the vitamins A and E and the supplement beta-carotene might actually raise the risk of premature death. The UK newspaper, The Guardian reported that “vitamin A was linked to a 16 percent increased risk of dying, beta-carotene to a 7 percent increased risk and vitamin E to a 4 percent increased risk” ( Thiel).
  •  Too much ß-carotene increases lung cancer risk in smokers. (Goodman, G.E. et al, The association between participant characteristics and serum concentrations of beta-carotene, retinol, retinylpalmitate, and alpha-tocopherol among participants in The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) for prevention of lungcancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1996 / 5 (10) / 815-821. , The Alpha-Tocoferol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Group, The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 1994 / 330 / 1029-1035. , Omenn, G.S. et al, Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1996 / 88 (21) / 1550-1559)
  • .
  •   Vitamin B complex was tested in animal studies in Sweden. "Two groups of silver foxes were fed identical diets, but one group received a food supplement in the form of all the known synthetic vitamins; the control group received vitamins in the form of brewer's yeast and liver.  The synthetically fed animals failed to grow, had bad fur and acquired many diseases.  Animals fed the natural vitamins grew normally, developed beautiful fur and enjoyed good health" (Paavo Airola, PhD, P. 210). 
    * "Vitamin B 6 has been proposed for numerous other uses as well, but without much (if any) scientific substantiation.
    For example, the two most famous uses of vitamin B 6 , carpal tunnel syndrome and premenstrual syndrome PMS , have
    no reliable supporting evidence at all, and the best-designed studies found it ineffective for either of these purposes. ... A recent, properly designed double-blind study of 120 women found no benefit of vitamin B 6 for PMS. ... All study participants received 3 months of treatment and 3 months of placebo. Vitamin B 6 proved to be no better than placebo. Approximately a dozen other double-blind studies have investigated the effectiveness of vitamin B 6 for PMS, but none were well designed; overall the evidence for any benefit is weak at best. 40,41"
         * Niacin - "In many cases, large doses of water-soluble vitamins can be taken with no ill effects since excessive amounts are
    readily excreted. However, liver inflammation may occur when niacin is taken at daily doses of over 500 mg. ... Niacin may also cause difficulty in controlling blood sugar in diabetics. It can increase uric acid levels, which will aggravate gout. Those with ulcers could be adversely affected, as niacin increases the production of stomach acid. ... High doses of pyridoxine may cause liver inflammation or permanent nerve damage. Megadoses of this vitamin are not necessary or advisable.
  •  Vitamin C can be pro-oxidative and kill healthy cells. (Sakagami H, et al, Apoptosis-inducing activity of vitamin C and vitamin K. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 2000 / 46 (1) / 129-143) Too much vitamin C decreases vitamin B12 level (Simon, J.A. et al, Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin ,and kidney stones in the US adults. Arch.Intern. Med. 1999 / 159 (6) / 619-624. , Herbert, V. ,Staging vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status in vegetarian. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994 / 59 (5 suppl.) / 1213S-1222S) Excess Vitamin C increases activation of mutagenic HCA from food (Hsieh, S.E. et al, The effect of vitamin C on N-acetyltransferase activity in Klebsiella pneumonia. Food and Chemical Toxicology 1997 / 35 (12) / 1151-1157). Too much vitamin C increases oxidative free iron level. (Attiek, Z.K. et al, Ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity stimulates cellular iron uptake by a trivalent cation-specific transport mechanism. J.Biol.Chem. 1999 / 274; (2) / 1116-1123. , Simon, J.A. et al, Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin ,and kidney stones in the US adults. Arch.Intern. Med. 1999 / 159 (6) / 619-624. , Palmer, A.M. et al, Dietary antioxydant supplementation reduces lipid peroxidation but impairs vascular function in small mesenteric arteries of the sptreptozotocin-diabetic rat. Diabetologia 1998 / 42 (2) / 148-156. , Rehman, A. et al, The effects of iron and vitamin C co-supplementation on oxidative damage to DNA in healthy volunteers. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998 / 246 (1) / 293-298. , Podmore, I.D. et al, Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties. Nature 1998 / 392 (6676) / 559. , Wienk, K.J. et al, Dietary ascorbic acid raises iron absorption in anaemic rats through enhancing mucosal iron uptake independent of iron solubility in the digesta. Br. J. Nutr. 1997 / 77 (1) / 123-131. , Herbert, V. et al, Vitamine C-driven free radical generation from iron. Journal of Nutrition 1996 / 126 / 1213-1220)

    Vitamin C can enhance tumors
    (Agus, D.B. et al, Stromal cell oxidation : a mechanism by which tumors obtain vitamin C. Cancer Research 1999 / 59 (18) / 4555-4558).   Studies at the Mayo Clinic found that advanced cancer patients given the same dose of vitamin C as in Linus Pauling's earlier study did not survive any longer than those not given the supplement (  "The Physicians Health Study II included 14,600 male doctors aged 50 and older in the US. The doctors were assigned to take supplements of either vitamin C, vitamin E or a placebo every other day. At the end of the study, cancer rates were similar among doctors who took the supplements and those who took the placebo. The article points out that these findings apply only to vitamin supplements, and not foods" (Muzaurieta, 2008)
  •  Vitamin D in excess can cause arteriosclerosis and bone-deformation. (Giunta, D.L. ,Dental changes in hypervitaminosis D. Oral. Surg. Pathol. Oral. Radiol. Endod. 1998 / 85 (4) / 410-413. , Uehlinger, P. et al, Differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia - a retrospective study of 46 dogs. (duitst.) Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 1998 / 140 (5) / 188-197. , Qin, X. et al, Altered phosphorylation of a 91-kDa protein in particulate fractions ofrat kidney after protracted 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or estrogen treatment. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1997 / 348 (2) / 239-246. , Niederhoffer, N. et al, Calcification of medical elastic fibers and aortic elasticity. Hypertension 1997 / 29 (4) / 999-1006. , Selby, P.L. et al, Vitamin D intoxication causes hypercalcemia by increased bone resorption with responds topamidronate. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 1995 / 43 (5) / 531-536. , Ito, M. et al, Dietary magnesium effect on swine coronary atherosclerosis induced by hypervitaminosis D. Acta Pathol. Jpn. 1987 / 37 (6) / 955-964)

    "Vitamin D toxicity can cause nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, and weight loss
    [Chesney RW. Vitamin D: can an upper limit be defined? J Nutr 1989;119 (12 Suppl):1825-8. [PubMed abstract]]. More seriously, it can also raise blood levels of calcium, causing mental status changes such as confusion and heart rhythm abnormalities [Favus MJ, Christakos S. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996]. ... Deposition of calcium and phosphate in the kidneys and other soft tissues can also be caused by excessive vitamin D levels [Biser-Rohrbaugh A, Hadley-Miller N. Vitamin D deficiency in breast-fed toddlers. J Pediatr Orthop 2001;21:508-11. [PubMed abstract] ]. A serum 25(OH)D concentration consistently >200 ng/mL (>500 nmol/L) is considered to be potentially toxic [ Jones G. Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:582S-6S. [PubMed abstract]]". (Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin D,

    "Prescription vitamin D pills... are FAR inferior to the vitamin D that you can buy in any health food store. In fact, they are less potent, less 'biologically active', more toxic and have a shorter shelf life
    " (Kerri Knox, RN, August 18, 2009, Prescription Vitamin D Not Suitable for Supplementation Say Researchers, NaturalNews).

    Synthetic Calcitriol (Rocaltrol) is an artificial hormone  that can cause a number of harmful side effects such as weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting; somnolence, dry mouth, metalic taste, anorexia, change in appetite; muscle pain, bone pain; changes in urological function; increased serum calcium levels in blood and in urine, increased serum creatinine levels; apathy.  More severe manifestations may include excessive thirst, dehydration, excessive secretion of urine, nocturia, abdominal pain, paralytic ileus and cardiac arrhythmias; psychosis; metastatic calcification, chronic hypercalcemia,  hypersensitivity reactions; conjunctivitis, pancreatitis; photophobia; excessive nasal mucus secretion; itching; high fever; decreased libido; elevated BUN, albuminuria, cholesterol levels, increased levels of liver enzymes (SGOT, SGPT); ectopic calcification and of kidney tubules; high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias; dystrophy; sensory disturbances, arrested growth, urinary tract infections (PDR, P2937;

    "The most common form of prescription vitamin D is in the form of Vitamin D2, also called Ergocalciferol. This is also the same type of vitamin D that is used for the 'fortification' of most milk and cereal products. But the 'over the counter' formulation of vitamin D in the form of Vitamin D3, also called Cholecalciferol, is far superior to the prescription formula that is routinely prescribed. First of all, prescription vitamin D is at least one-half as effective as vitamin D3 and possibly even up to one-tenth as effective. In 'The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement', the authors state, "50 000 IU vitamin D2 should be considered equivalent to 15000 IU vitamin D3, and likely closer to 5000 IU vitamin D3". That's One-Tenth as effective as vitamin D that you can buy in stores. When these differences were discovered in the 1950's, Germany reformulated their prescription vitamin D to vitamin D3, but almost 60 years later, the United States is still using prescription vitamin D that
    doesn't work"
    (Kerri Knox, RN).

    Vitamin D deficiency increases parathyroid hormone levels which negatively alters calcium metabolism. In many studies, Vitamin D3 effectively decreased parathyroid hormone while vitamin D2 did not. When Vitamin D receptors bind with an active form of vitamin D,  the expression of disease causing genes can be prevented. Yet, vitamin D2 produces an active hormone that has 40% less binding ability than does the hormone produced from vitamin D3. Vitamin D researchers, Dr's Houghton and Vieth state, "Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, should not be regarded as a nutrient suitable for supplementation"
    (Kerri Knox, RN).
  •  Vitamin E in excess can cause bleeding in the brain (The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994 / 330 (15) / 1029-1035) and impair immune system reactivity, which can cause cancer or arthritis. (Herbert, V., Destroying immune homeostasis in normal adults with antioxidant supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997 / 65 (6) / 1901-1903) Very often in skin cancer (and sometimes in breast cancer cells contain more vitamin E, unbalancing antioxidant status, increasing susceptibility to oxidative radicals (Gerber, M. et al, Oxidant-antioxydant status alterations in cancer patients : relationship to tumor progression. Journal of Nutrition 1996 / 126 (4.suppl.) / 1201-1207;  Zhu, Z. et al, Vitamin E concentration in breast adipose tissue of breast cancer patients. (Kuopio Finland) Cancer Causes Control 1996 / 7 (6) / 591-595.),  (Grammatico, P. et al, Increased sensitivity to perodizing agents is correlated with an imbalance of antioxidants in normal melanocytes from melanoma patients. Exp. Dermatol. 1998 / 7 (4) / 205-212).  "Scientists at the University of Washington reported how taking daily supplements of vitamin E for ten years was linked to an increased risk of lung cancer" (The Times April 21, 2008).
     "High dose isolated vitamin E can have pro-oxidant effects [32]. Jerome Block (M.D.) reports, "My research of the literature and my patients supports that this {ISOLATED} vitamin E supplement by itself does not supply adequate antioxidant protection…If one takes the {ISOLATED} commercial form of vitamin E…there is evidence that the effect of the antioxidant is not present…vitamin E found in foods is much more effective than the single alpha-tocopherol supplements… studies show that alpha-tocopherol alone…has been pro-oxidant rather than antioxidant [33] ... Some synthetic forms have only 2% of the biological activity of food Vitamin E  [27]. The biologic activity of vitamin E is based on its ability to reverse specific vitamin E-deficiency symptoms [27], therefore it is a scientific fact that, overall, synthetic vitamin E has less ability to correct vitamin E deficiencies than food vitamin E. There is an interesting reason for this, which is that the body regulates plasma vitamin E through a specific liver alpha-tocopherol transfer protein, whereas it has no such protein for other vitamin E forms [27]. Or in other words, the liver produces a protein to handle vitamin E found in food, but not for the synthetic forms!... It is a scientific fact that, overall, synthetic vitamin E has less ability to correct vitamin E deficiencies than food vitamin E"

        "A study of 77,126 men and women who used vitamin E supplements over a 10-year period found a small increased risk of
        lung cancer. However, the study made no delineation of which form of vitamin E was used, the small increased risk was barely
       significant, and the increased risk applied only to current smokers. This study looked backwards in time, and depended on people's
       memories; this often produces erroneous results. The study was e-published in the November 2007 issue of the American Journal
       of Respiration and Critical Care Medicine"
(Arlene Lengyel, 2009, Sorting Out Truth and Hyperbole, - _e_   

           "Analysts at the Linus Pauling Institute, a Center of Excellence for Research on Complementary and Alternative Medicine set up by
      the National Institutes of Health, have complained about biased researchers and ill-designed studies eager to show supplements in a
      bad light. Experts have pointed out that the media are wont to sensationalize bad light. Experts have pointed out that the media are
      wont to sensationalize and misrepresent vitamin E studies in the style of The National Inquirer. Perhaps the media must be cognizant
      of big corporations that pay the bills that don’t want to admit that food choices or supplements may do what expensive corporations
      that pay the bills that don’t want to admit that food choices or supplements may do what expensive drugs do" (
Arlene Lengyel, 2009,
         Sorting Out Truth and Hyperbole,

  •  "Vitamins K ... can be pro-oxidative and kill healthy cells (Sakagami H, et al, Apoptosis-inducing activity of vitamin C and vitamin K. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) 2000 / 46 (1) / 129-143).

*  "Natural" vitamin pills made from extracts of food sources
Here are some examples from scientific studies showing the effectiveness of "natural" vitamin supplements
(before "Big Pharma" control):

  • Multivitamin supplements
    Adenomatous polyps incidence lowered - Research at Columbia University, NY performed a case-control study with patients with previous neoplasia who were undergoing follow-up colonoscopy. The study of 1,162 patients who underwent colonoscopy between March 1993 and February 1997 found that "The use of multivitamins, vitamin E, and calcium supplements were found to be associated with a lower incidence of recurrent adenomas in a population of patients with history of previous colonic neoplasia" (Dis Colon Rectum, 1999 Feb;42(2):212-7,  Abstract).

  •   Vitamin A
    * Anti-inflammatory action of "Vitamin A appears to protect against and be depleted in inflammatory conditions. {51} (Masterjohn, 2006)
    * Antioxidant action of  "Vitamin A also protects against environmental toxins, and protects against free radical damage" (Masterjohn, 2006).  "Carotenoids have been linked to oxidation-preventing mechanisms and are efficient free-radical scavengers,
    functioning as antioxidants"
    (Gerster H, 1997;67(2):71-90).
    * Cancer can be reduced with Vitamin A and beta carotene.  "Concentrated doses of naturally occurring all-trans retinoic acid, the active hormone form of vitamin A, are currently used as a highly successful treatment for leukemia"[50]  (Chris Masterjohn, 2006).
    * Immune system function improved after Vitamin A supplementation (Mirza et al. 2006)

  •  Vitamin B
    *  Skin healing process was shown to improve when Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) was taken in conjunction with vitamins C and E after surgery (Vaxman F. Olender S. Lambert A. Nisand G. Aprahamian M. Bruch JF. Didier E. Volkmar P. Grenier JF., Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process. A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial., European Surgical Research. 27(3):158-66, 1995).
    Ulcerative colitis may be prevented with Vitamin B5 supplementation. "Tissue samples taken from the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis has shown significantly low levels of coenzyme A. Wherein a deficiency of vitamin B5 is related to reduced production of coenzyme A, it is suggestive that lower levels of vitamin B5 plays a role in the development of ulcerative colitis" (Ron Baams, Health Effects of Vitamin B5;Ellestad-Sayed JJ. Nelson RA. Adson MA. Palmer WM. Soule EH., The Role of Vitamin B5 in Colitis., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 29(12):1333-8, 1976 Dec).
    Immune system function improved in patients with viral hepatitis when B5 was supplemented. (Komar VI., The use of pantothenic acid preparations in treating patients with viral hepatitis A., Terapevticheskii Arkhiv. 63(11):58-60, 1991).
    * Heart disease improved - "A study by Dr. Raymond Lombardi shows that a combination of folic acid (B9), B6 and B12 vitamins aid in the elimination of homocysteine, a substance that contributes to heart disease" (Heather Rutherford, Advantages of B Complex Vitamins,
          * Cancer risk reduced  - "Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Ph.D. performed a large study between the years of 1985 and 1993. The results showed that taking a B complex can reduce the likelihood of developing lung or pancreatic cancers" (Rutherford).
          * PMS relieved - "According to Doctor Katrina Wyatt, B complex vitamins can reduce the symptoms of PMS like bloating, depression and breast tenderness" (Rutherford).

  •   Vitamin C
    Colds prevented  - Research in 1970, by Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling indicated that large doses of vitamin C (1,000 milligrams per day or more) could help prevent colds and reduce their severity. Another study was done showing the effectiveness of Vitamin C for the common cold (Douglas RM, Chalker EB, Treacy B: Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000, 2:CD000980. PubMed Abstract).
    Cancer risk and tumors reduced - Research by Pauling in a 1976 study with a Scottish physician in which "100 patients with advanced cancer were given 10,000 milligrams of vitamin C. The study concluded that the patients treated with vitamin C survived 3 to 4 times longer than patients not given the supplements" ( According to Dr. Lines Pauling's research "Vitamin C will decrease the risk of getting certain cancers by 75%"Studies suggest that "vitamin C's antioxidant mechanisms may help to prevent cancer in several ways. Vitamin C combats the peroxidation of lipids which has been linked to degeneration and the aging process. One study of elderly people found that 400 mg of vitamin C per day (for a one-year) reduced serum lipid peroxide levels. Vitamin C can also work inside the cells to protect the DNA from the damage caused by free radicals. In several studies, report the researchers Gaby and Singh, vitamin C reduced the level of potentially destructive genetic alterations or chromosome aberrations"  ((6). S.K. Gaby and V.N. Singh, "Vitamin C," – Vitamin Intake and Health: A Scientific Review, S.K. Gaby, A. Bendich, V. Singh and L. Machlin (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y. 1991, p. 108. (; Byers T, Guerrero N. Epidemiologic evidence for vitamin C and vitamin E in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62:1385S-1392S.)

    "Vitamin C may be able to combat the carcinogenic, toxic or mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants in part by stimulating detoxifying enzymes in the liver. In another study, vitamin C was shown to block the formation of ... mutagens" (S.K. Gaby and V.N. Singh, "Vitamin C," – Vitamin Intake and Health: A Scientific Review, S.K. Gaby, A. Bendich, V. Singh and L. Machlin (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y. 1991, p. 108 & 110)( Cancer-causing nitrosamines form from nitrates, chemicals which are commonly used in processed foods. "In several human studies, in which the subjects consumed a nitrosamine precursor, the urinary levels of nitrosamines were significantly reduced by vitamin C" ( S.K. Gaby and V.N. Singh, "Vitamin C," – Vitamin Intake and Health: A Scientific Review, S.K. Gaby, A. Bendich, V. Singh and L. Machlin (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y. 1991, p. 109;

    "In 1991, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition conducted a comprehensive analysis of some 45 studies on vitamin C's protective effects against various types of cancer. Of these, 32 studies reported a significant link between vitamin C intake and the incidence of cancer. In fact, a high intake of vitamin C offered twice the protection of a low intake. Many of these studies defined a "high intake" as a daily dosage of 160 mg or more per day; a "low intake" generally was less than 70 mg." (Gladys Block, "Vitamin C and Cancer Prevention: The Epidemiologic Evidence," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 1991; 53:270S-82S; ;

         * Cataracts have been shown to occur more frequently and become more severe as people age, and Vitamin C levels in the lens of the eye decrease.  Studies have observed increased dietary vitamin C intake and increased blood levels of vitamin C to be associated with a decreased risk of cataracts ( Jacques PF, Chylack LT, Jr., Hankinson SE, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(7):1009-1019. (PubMed);  Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of self-reported cataract among older Americans. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(12):1207-1211. (PubMed);
    *  Immune function improved by Ascorbic acid's ability to enhance B cells and T-cell proliferation in response to infection and inflammatory reactions. Further, it has been shown that ascorbic acid blocks pathways that lead to apoptosis of T-cells and thus stimulate or maintain T cell proliferation to attack the infection. (Campbell JD,  1999).  Chronically ill adult participation in a study showed that "vitamin C has a positive effect on patients suffering from a variety of chronic disorders. In one large study, 260 patients with viral hepatitis A took 300 mg of vitamin C/day for several weeks. The researchers, who studied immune indicators, such as serum immunoglobulin and neutrophil phagocytosis ..., concluded that vitamin C 'exerts a remarkable immuno-modulating action'. - that's a complicated way of saying your immune system functions better because of it" ( V.S. Vasil'ev, V.l. Komar and N.l. Kisel, "Humoral and Cellular Indices of Nonspecific Resistance In Viral Hepatitis A and Ascorbic Acid, Ter-Arkh; 1989 61(11); p. 44-6;
     * Cardiovascular disease
    relieved by Vitamin C.  "Past research has suggested that vitamins E and C and other antioxidants reduce cardiovascular disease by preventing tissue damage" (Muzaurieta, 2008)
         * Blood vessel function
    improved- Congestive heart failure patient participation in a studies by
    French and German researchers indicated that vitamin C appeared to keep cells in the blood vessel wall from dying. They believe this protection from cell death could explain previous study findings which suggest that vitamin C benefits blood vessel function in people with congestive heart failure.(3)
          *  Coronary artery disease improved - Patient participated in another study that "found that long-term administration of vitamin C reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction  Researchers instructed patients with documented coronary artery disease to take a single oral dose of either 2 g vitamin C or a placebo. The dose of vitamin C improved dilation of the brachial artery, as assessed by a high-resolution vascular ultrasound done 2 hours later. The researchers reported that the effect was sustained among patients who subsequently took 1/2 gram of vitamin C daily for 30 days" (4)
          * Leukocyte function improved - "In a 1981 study, healthy adults received 1 gram of vitamin C intravenously. One hour later, the neutrophil motility (how fast your white blood cells can move) and leukocyte transformation in the subjects' blood had increased significantly. Other studies support the finding that vitamin C enhances the leukocyte function. Vitamin C has also been shown to decrease bacteriological activity"
    ( S.K. Gaby and V.N. Singh, "Vitamin C," – Vitamin Intake and Health: A Scientific Review, S.K. Gaby, A. Bendich, V. Singh and L. Machlin (eds.) Marcel Dekker, N.Y. 1991 p. p. 120-121).      
    Antioxidant activity  of Vitamin C was demonstrated by another study  (Frei B, England L, Ames BN: Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:6377-6381. PubMed Abstract)
         Stroke risk reduced - Research showed that patients with high blood levels of vitamin C have significantly reduced risk of stroke, according to a long-term study (5).  Tetsuji Yokoyama, M.D., research associate in epidemiology at the Medical Research Institute of Tokyo Medical and Dental University explained that the risk of stroke was inversely related to vitamin C in the bloodstream in this study" (

  •  Vitamin D
    * Bone loss reduced in treatment with vitamin D. (Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:961-8. [PubMed abstract] ;  de Sevaux RGL, Hoitsma AJ, Corstens FHM, Wetzels JFM. Treatment with vitamin D and calcium reduces bone loss after renal transplantation: a randomized study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:1608-14. [PubMed abstract]; /vitamind. asp#h8 ).
        * Hyperparathyroidism reduced.  Research showed that "Some patients may develop secondary hyperparathyroidism due to low levels of vitamin D. The initial treatment for this type of hyperparathyroidism is vitamin D.  Studies also suggest that vitamin D supplementation may reduce the incidence of hypoparathyroidism following surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (partial or total removal of the parathyroid glands).
        * Cancer reduced - "Another 2006 study found that taking the U.S. RDA of vitamin D (400 IU per day) cut the risk of pancreatic cancer by 43% in a sample of more than 120,000 people from two long-term health surveys.[68][69] A randomized intervention study involving 1,200 women, published in June 2007, reports that vitamin D supplementation (1,100 international units (IU)/day) resulted in a 60% reduction in cancer incidence, during a four-year clinical trial, rising to a 77% reduction for cancers diagnosed after the first year (and therefore excluding those cancers more likely to have originated prior to the vitamin D intervention).[70] [71] Research has also indicated beneficial effects of high levels of calcitriol on patients with advanced prostate cancer.[72]" (; 68.^ Skinner HG, Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS (2006). "Vitamin D intake and the risk for pancreatic cancer in two cohort studies". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (9): 1688–95. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0206. PMID 16985031.
    69.^ BBC NEWS | Health | Vitamin D 'slashes cancer risk'; 70.^ Martin Mittelstaedt (28 April 2007). "Vitamin D casts cancer prevention in new light". Global and Mail. Retrieved 2007-04-28.; 71.^ Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. (2007). "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial". Am J Clin Nutr. 85 (6): 1586–91. PMID 17556697; 72.^ Beer T, Myrthue A (2006). "Calcitriol in the treatment of prostate cancer". Anticancer Res 26 (4A): 2647–51. PMID 16886675).

    Excess parathyroid hormone reduced with supplementation of Vitamin D3 according to many studies.
         * Expression of disease causing genes can be prevented when Vitamin D receptors bind with an active form of vitamin D,   Vitamin D3 produces an active hormone that has 60% more binding ability than does the hormone produced from vitamin D2. ().

  •  Vitamin E 
    Lou Gehrig's Disease improved - (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS) fatality risk was shown to possibly be reduced by regular use of vitamin E supplements according to researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health and the American Cancer Society (Annals of Neurology, January,; (AScribe Newswire,
    Antioxidant activity - "The effectiveness of vitamin E in preventing atherosclerotic processes is supported by antioxidant chemistry, by in vitro and ex vivo studies in cell systems and animal models, and by in vivo studies in animals" (Pryor WA. Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000; 28: 141–164.[Medline];
         *  Neuropathy improved - Diabetes complication (cardiac autonomic neuropathy) was shown in a double-blind trial to improve with Vitamin E supplementation (Manzella D, Barbieri M, Ragno E, et al, Chronic administration of pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improves the cardiac autonomic nervous system in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1052-1057;
    Increased blood pressure occurred in diabetics who took 500 mg of vitamin E daily (either as natural
    alpha tocopherol or a mixture of alpha and gamma tocopherol) 
    (Ward NC, Wu JH, Clarke MW, et al. The effect of vitamin E on blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2007;25:227-234;  I found in my experimentation that Vitamin E from fish oil can increase blood pressure, but vitamin E from plant sources does not.
    *  Menopausal hot flashes improved with Vitamin E supplementation. A double-blind study conducted in Iran reported that vitamin E (400 IU daily) was more effective than placebo for treating menopausal hot flashes (Ziaei S, Kazemnejad A, Zareai M. The effect of vitamin E on hot flashes in menopausal women, Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2007 Jul 30;
         *   Tardive Dyskinesia improved - "Between 1987 and 1998, at least five double-blind studies were published that indicated vitamin E was beneficial in treating tardive dyskinesia (TD) (Elkashef AM, Wyatt RJ. Tardive dyskinesia: possible involvement of free radicals and treatment with vitamin E. Schizophr Bull. 1999;25:731-740; Adler LA, Edson R, Lavori P, et al. Long-term treatment effects of vitamin E for tardive dyskinesia. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:868-872;  "A statistical analysis of the double-blind studies done before 1999 found good evidence that vitamin E was more effective than placebo" (Soares, KV, BcGrath JJ. The treatment of tardive dyskinesia—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 1999;39:1-16;
        *  Cancer risk reduced - "Many animal and in vitro experiments have shown that the supplementation of diet with vitamin E within a certain dose range reduced the risk of chemical- and radiation-induced cancers"  (K. N. Prasad and J. Edwards-Prasad (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center),  Vitamin E and cancer prevention: recent advances and future potentials, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol 11, Issue 5 487-500, 1992,

    According to a report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): “Subgroup analysis did identify a statistically significant 9% reduction in all cause mortality and a borderline significant 13% reduction in all-cancer mortality associated with supplemental vitamin E in combination with other micro-nutrients”
    (Shekelle P, Hardy ML, Coulter I, Udani J, Spar M, Oda K, Jungvig LK, Tu W, Suttorp MJ, Valentine D, Ramirez L, Shanman R, Newberry SJ. Effect of the supplemental use of antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). 2003 Oct;(75):1-3. Review. PMID: 15523748;

    A Tufts University review of antioxidants and human cancer stated: “Selenium and vitamin E reduced the risk of some forms of cancer, including prostate and colon cancer, and carotenoids have been shown to help reduce breast cancer risk. Cancer treatment by radiation and anticancer drugs reduces inherent antioxidants and induces oxidative stress"
    (Borek C. Dietary antioxidants and human cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Dec;3(4):333-41. Review, PMID: 15523104; Dr. Darvish).

  •  Vitamin K
        * Osteoporosis risk reduced - "A clinical study conducted by Cees Vermeer, Ph.D., at the University of Maastricht, the Netherlands, found supplement al vitamin K2 extracted from fermented natto soyfood superior to ordinary vitamin K1 supplements in the levels of K absorbed into the bloodstream, as well as reducing several risk factors for osteoporosis. ... According to lead researcher Vermeer, "This study is the first of its kind comparing a vitamin K2 extract in supplement form to ordinary vitamin K supplements for bone health. These findings build on the existing body of evidence supporting vitamin K2 as an important form of vitamin K with benefits that extend beyond K1 alone"
    (, 2004).

*  "Natural" Vitamin pills after "Big Pharma" takeover 
"90% or more of the vitamins and supplements now on the market labeled as "natural" or "food based" actually are spiked with synthetic chemicals"
(Ronnie Cummins). "There is a growing number of vitamin companies who sell their products in health food stores and use 100% synthetic vitamins, but have the words 'natural' and 'organic' on their labels" (Airola).  "Putting the word "natural" on the vitamin label is, in most cases today, deceptive. The word is constantly abused and, as such, its meaning has been diluted to a point where it holds little value. Many misleading labels on supplement products take advantage of the ambiguity of the word "natural" to project a wholesome marketing image, even when the product does not merit it. Whereas the term "naturally occurring" on a label usually means that a vitamin or nutrient is completely derived of compounds from naturally-occurring sources - the plants themselves - rather than merely containing a naturally-occurring ingredient mixed with synthetic ingredients" (Brian Clement, Ph.D., N.M.D.).

Production of these newer "natural" vitamins uses "distillation ... whereby the source-foods are exposed to high powered chemicals, solvents, heat and distillations reducing it down to the desired individual crystalline vitamin or amino acid" (  "To make matters worse, so-called natural health companies buy these same pharmaceutical grade synthetic vitamins and mix them with a few herbs and foods and call it ‘natural whole food, or food-based vitamins.’ Do not be fooled into taking supplements that are ultimately harmful or useless at best" (

  •  Multivitamin supplements
    The best example I've found of false advertising came from the company with the most convincing sales pitch.  The salesman came to the door with a flipchart showing in writing benefits of their "100% natural vitamins".  I checked with the manufacturer and was told " We do have some natural ingredients, but mostly synthetic and genetically engineered ingredients."

  •  Vitamin A - "The World Health Organization recommends that high-dose vitamin A supplements be given to all children aged 6 mo. However, studies assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) from 1 to 5 mo have generally found no effect on mortality, whereas the majority of trials in the 1980s and early 1990s studying older infants and children reported benefits" (Christine Benn, Charles Stephensen).

  •  Vitamin B - may be made from "nutritional yeast grown on toxic sludge. ... Vitamin B12 is made from either ground up toxic cow livers or from activated sewage sludge" (

  •  Vitamin C - "So-called 'natural' ascorbic acid is made by fermenting refined sugar into sorbitol, then hydrogenating it until it turns into sorbose, then acetone (commonly referred to as nail polish remover) is added to break the molecular bonds which creates ascorbic acid! How 'natural' is that?" (Thiel)"The vitamin C sold as ascorbic acid is not real vitamin C, and actually drains your body of the vitamin C you really need. Ascorbic acid, which everyone takes as ‘vitamin C,’ is made from pouring sulfuric acid over corn syrup" (

  •  Vitamin D is made from yeasts and fungi which are major sources of ergosterol (a crystalline steroid alcohol naturally occurring in fungi), which is irradiated artificially to make vitamin D. Fungi are a major cause of most diseases.

  •  Vitamin E - "Almost all vitamin E comes from Eastman Kodak" (  It seems to be a new trend. instead of paying to dispose of factory toxic waste, sell it to supplement manufacturers.
       Tardive Dyskinesia - "Between 1987 and 1998, at least five double-blind studies were published that indicated vitamin E was beneficial in treating tardive dyskinesia (TD).113,114 ... A statistical analysis of the double-blind studies done before 1999 found good evidence that vitamin E was more effective than placebo.118  Most studies found that vitamin E worked best for TD
    of more recent onset.119.  In 1999, the picture on vitamin E changed with the publication of one more study—the largest and longest to date.120 This double-blind study included 107 participants from nine different research sites who took 1,600 IU of
    vitamin E or placebo daily for at least 1 year. In contrast to most of the previous studies, this trial did not find vitamin E effective in decreasing TD symptoms"
    (Adler LA, Rotrosen J, Edson R, et al. Vitamin E treatment for tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:836-841;

*  Whole food vitamin pills
"The best (manufactured) vitamin supplements are those with labeled potencies derived from naturally-occurring, full-spectrum food extracts. Naturally-occurring vitamins are obtained by taking a nutrient-rich plant, removing the water and the fiber in a chemical-free vacuum process, and packaging it for stability. The entire vitamin complex is captured intact, retaining its functional and nutritional integrity, and a full spectrum of nutritional values.

"One of the many superior qualities about naturally-occurring whole food vitamins is that small or even minimal quantities are required daily because they are already whole, naturally-complexed supplements that the body does not have to "build" to utilize. On the contrary, one would typically need to ingest much larger doses of synthetic supplements to receive a sufficient level of supplementation, knowing that many of the complexes will not be "completed" and therefore eliminated. ... Another primary difference between real full-spectrum whole-food vitamins and synthetic vitamins is that real vitamins contain the essential trace minerals necessary for the vitamins' synergistic operation. Synthetic vitamins contain no trace minerals and must utilize the body's own mineral reserves. Ingesting real vitamins does not require the body to deplete its own reserves of nutrients to replace any nutrients missing from the false vitamins"
( "Naturally-occurring whole-food vitamins are not toxic since the vitamin is complexed in its natural whole integral working form, and requires nothing from the body to "build" a vitamin" (Brian Clement, PhD, NMD, 2007).

"Real, natural vitamins, minerals and enzymes work closely together as co-factors for each other's efficacy. If one part is missing, or is fractionated, or is in the incorrect form or the incorrect amount, entire chains of metabolic processes cannot and will not proceed normally. Only nature can provide us with naturally-occurring vitamins as found in real, wholesome organic foods" (Brian Clement, PhD,  NMD, 2007).  However, with the fiber removed, so called "whole food vitamins" are not really whole, and without the fiber to carry the nutrients through the digestive system, they enter the blood stream improperly digested.

According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, "nutrient needs should be met primarily through consuming foods. Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds that may have beneficial effects on health. ... Dietary supplements, while recommended in some cases, cannot replace a healthful diet" (  It's even hard to get vitamins from food sources now, because soils are so depleted, unless we eat only organically grown foods.

"Too much of almost any vitamin or mineral can be extremely harmful. When food contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals, the body prevents damage by decreasing the absorption rate. To promote supplements this decreased absorption is presented as a 'defect', that has to be compensated by consuming purchased supplements. Supplements however, can be extremely harmful because contents are highly concentrated, blocking selective uptake" (

*  Vitamins in food
According to a study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: "Eating vitamins present in foods is still good for you. It's only vitamin pills that seem problematic" ( "Individual (synthetic) vitamin supplements such as vitamin E and C do not appear to provide the same potential advantages as vitamins included as part of a healthy, balanced diet" (Dr. J. Michael Gaziano, Physicians Health Study II; Muzaurieta, 2008).  “While some of the studies question the value of taking supplements, none so far question the value of eating foods rich in these antioxidants. The benefit of a diet rich in these compounds may be that they act in combination with other things that are naturally found in foods—other vitamins, minerals, plant chemicals and fibre. And it may be this combined effect that provides you with the positive antioxidant benefit” (Berkoff, 2008).

"Only whole foods can provide the energy needed to assist our bodies to reach optimum health. According to Dr. Vicki G. Hufnagel, ‘We are just learning what harm they (vitamins) can do to a small embryo. Vitamins are drugs’ Dr. Ralph C. Cinque, Ph.D. says, ‘All vitamins and mineral supplements, because they are fractionated, are treated as toxic waste in the body.’"(  Scientific research has proved that our bodies only need small amounts of whole food vitamin complexes; just the way nature manufactured them. This natural whole food nutrition is a lot more effective than high doses of synthetic and fractionated vitamins. (

"Vitamins in foods are combined with other synergistic elements in the food sources that work together to be effective, safe, and health promoting. Food antioxidants, ... vitamins, minerals, or concentrated herbs, are superior to the commonly sold non-foods" (Masterjohn).

However, "our foods no longer contain the nutrition they should.  Due to modern processing and farming methods, foods that should be high in certain nutrients no longer are. For example, the tomato is an excellent source of phytonutrients, specifically, lycopene. But when you buy a tomato from the grocery store, there is little to no lycopene or other nutrients left in it. The tomato was likely grown on nutrient depleted soil, fertilized and sprayed with toxic chemicals, picked green, then gassed to turn it red. Little wonder it has no nutrition value left! Another culprit in the nutrition depletion of foods is our food cooking and preparation. Even if you could by some magic acquire a nutrient rich tomato, cooking or storing the tomato will destroy most of the nutrients. For example, studies have shown that phytonutrients begin breaking down less than 24 hours after the vegetable was picked! Of course, there are many other factors contributing to the poor nutrient content of our foods: breeding, GMOs, storage, etc." (

 "Most food vitamins and food minerals are better absorbed and/or retained by the body [Vinson JA; Traber MG; Thiel RJ; DeCava JA.]. ...  'Overdose' of natural food complex {vitamins} is not harmful, whereas an overdose of a chemically pure vitamin or other isolated 'nutrient' can be. Science is beginning to concur" [DeCava JA.] (Thiel).

  • Vitamin A 
    Strong bones and teeth
    - "Primitive" populations were shown to have resistance to dental caries and superb skeletal structure, due to  Primitive diets were "at least ten times" higher in the fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin A, than was the American diet, even if Americans were meeting the official recommendations ((1) Price, Weston A., Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, self-published, (1945) p. 275;  Masterjohn, 2006).
    Down syndrome - "A five month study involving 23 children with Down syndrome tested supplementation with vitamin A
    and concluded that it significantly reduced the incidence of infection and improved plasma vitamin A levels [10]". Thiel

        *  Cancer - "Vitamin A-rich foods ... have been successfully used to treat cancer" (Masterjohn, Chris, "Vitamin A: The Forgotten Bodybuilding
              Nutrient," Published December 15, 2004

  • Vitamin B from food sources was shown to be beneficial in animal studies. "Two groups of silver foxes were fed identical diets, but one group received a food supplement in the form of all the known synthetic vitamins; the control group received vitamins in the form of brewer's yeast and liver.  The synthetically fed animals failed to grow, had bad fur and acquired many diseases.  Animals fed the natural vitamins grew normally, developed beautiful fur and enjoyed good health" (Paavo Airola, PhD, P. 210). 

    * Macular degeneration - A placebo controlled study showed that the combination of B-6, folic acid and B-12 reduced risk of
    macular degeneration by more than one-third after seven years compared to the placebo group.  Christen and others recommended food sources of B vitamins and folic acid such as ... beans, nuts, leafy vegetables, spinach and peas"
    (William Christen of Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston).

    Down syndrome - "A three year double-blind placebo controlled longitudinal study involving those with Down syndrome found that vitamin B6 supplementation helped normalize brain function by reducing elevated cortical auditory evoked potentials to a more
    normal level [15]" Thiel.

  • Vitamin C - "Many scientific studies have shown that eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables containing vitamin C significantly reduces the risk for cancers of the pancreas, esophagus, larynx, mouth, stomach, colon and rectum, breast, cervix, and lungs. Many of these studies show that a high intake of vitamin C from food sources has about a 2-fold protective effect when compared to a low intake of the vitamin. Likewise, people with higher blood levels of vitamin C tend to have a lower risk for cancer than people with lower blood levels of vitamin C" ( "Vitamin C as found in foods can have 3.2 times the antioxidant of ascorbic acid [81], ... Furthermore, an in vitro study concluded that food vitamin C had negative ORP (oxidative reductive potential), whereas regular ascorbic acid had positive ORP (negative ORP is much better as it helps 'clean up' oxidative damage, whereas items with positive ORP do not) [87].Thiel

  •  Vitamin D from fish, animal products, and egg yolks can be toxic in large doses.  However Vitamin D from sun exposure or from plant foods is not toxic even in large doses. "Vitamin D toxicity usually occurs only if excessive doses (prescription forms or
    rodenticide analogs) are taken [
    "RODENTICIDES, source: Journal of Veterinary Medicine, archives, vol. 27, May, 1998". IPM Of Alaska, Solving Pest Problems Sensibly.]. ... Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not normally cause vitamin D toxicity [Vieth R ,01 May 1999, "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety", Am J Clin Nutr 69 (5): 842–56. PMID 10232622.] This is because within about 20 minutes of ultraviolet exposure in light skinned individuals (3–6 times longer for pigmented skin) the concentration of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium, and any further vitamin D that is produced is degraded [Holick M, 1995, "Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D", Am J Clin Nutr 61 (3 Suppl): 638S–645S. PMID 7879731] Maximum endogenous production with full body exposure to sunlight is 250 µg (10,000 IU) per day" [Vieth R, 1999;

         *  Immune system regulation
    The hormonally active form of vitamin D mediates immunological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDR) which are present in most immune cell types. ...  Activation of the VDR has potent anti-proliferative, pro-differentiative, and immunomodulatory functions including both immune-enhancing and immunosuppressive effects
    [Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R (August 2005). "Noncalcemic actions of vitamin D receptor ligands". Endocr. Rev. 26 (5): 662–87. doi:10.1210/er.2004-0002. PMID 15798098].  VDR ligands have been shown to increase the activity of natural killer cells, and enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages [Vitamin D; The Physicians Desk Reference. 2006 Thompson Healthcare].  Active vitamin D hormone also increases the production of antimicrobial peptide that is ... triggered by bacteria, viruses, and fungi [Janet Raloff, The Antibiotic Vitamin Science News, Vol 170, November 11, 2006, pages 312-317] .  Effects of VDR-ligands, such as vitamin D hormone, on T-cells include suppression of T cell activation and induction of regulatory T cells, as well as effects on cytokine secretion patterns.[Yee YK, Chintalacharuvu SR, Lu J, Nagpal S. (2005). "Vitamin D receptor modulators for inflammation and cancer". Mini Rev Med Chem. 5 (8): 761–78. doi:10.2174/1389557054553785. PMID 16101412. ] VDR-ligands have also been shown to affect maturation, differentiation, and migration of dendritic cells, and inhibits DC-dependent T cell activation, resulting in an overall state of immunosuppression [van Etten E, Mathieu C., 2005,"Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts"; J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 97 (1-2): 93–101. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.06.002. PMID 16046118. ]" (

    "These immunoregulatory properties indicate that ligands with the potential to activate the VDR, including supplementation with calcitriol ..., may have therapeutic clinical applications in the treatment of inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), dermatological conditions (psoriasis, actinic keratosis), osteoporosis, cancers (prostate, colon, breast, myelodysplasia, leukemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma), and autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes); central nervous systems diseases (multiple sclerosis); and in preventing organ transplant rejection 
    [Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R , August 2005, "Noncalcemic actions of vitamin D receptor ligands", Endocr. Rev. 26 (5): 662–87. doi:10.1210/er.2004-0002. PMID 15798098]" (

         *  Multiple sclerosis  "A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reported evidence of a link between Vitamin D deficiency and the onset of multiple sclerosis; the authors posit that this is due to the immune-response suppression properties of Vitamin D [Munger KL., Levin, LI,Hollis BW, Howard, NS , Ascherio A, 2006, "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis". Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (23): 2832–2838. doi:10.1001/jama.296.23.2832. PMID 17179460].
    Further research indicates that vitamin D is  ...  necessary for differentiating between self and foreign proteins in a subgroup of individuals genetically predisposed to MS
    ["Science News / Molecular Link Between Vitamin D Deficiency And MS",];

         *  Cancer prevention and recovery
    The vitamin D hormone, calcitriol, has been found to induce death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The anti-cancer activity of vitamin D is thought to result from its role as a nuclear transcription factor that regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and a wide range of cellular mechanisms central to the development of cancer
    [Ingraham BA, Bragdon B, Nohe A (2007). "Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer". Curr Med Res Opin 24: 139. doi:10.1185/030079907X253519. PMID 18034918].  These effects may be mediated through vitamin D receptors expressed in cancer cells."

    A search of ... medical literature published between 1970 and 2007 found an increasing body of research supporting the hypothesis that the active form of vitamin D has significant, protective effects against the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between sun exposure, serum levels of 25(OH)D, and intakes of vitamin D and risk of developing and/or surviving cancer. ... A scientific review undertaken by the National Cancer Institute found that vitamin D was beneficial in preventing colorectal cancer, which showed an inverse relationship with blood levels of 80 nmol/L or higher associated with a 72% risk reduction. ... A 2006 study using data on over 4 million cancer patients from 13 different countries showed a marked difference in cancer risk between countries classified as sunny and countries classified as less–sunny for a number of different cancers
    [Tuohimaa P, Pukkala E, Scélo G, et al, 2007, "Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin D as a possible explanation". Eur. J. Cancer 43 (11): 1701–12. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2007.04.018. PMID 17540555]" (

    Cholesterol levels were found to be reduced in gardeners in the UK during the summer months [Grimes DS, Hindle E, Dyer T.,1996, "Sunlight cholesterol and coronary heart disease". Quarterly Journal of Medicine 89 (8): 579–589. PMID 8935479]" (

  •  Vitamin E  According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, "nutrient needs should be met primarily through consuming foods. Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds that may have beneficial effects on health. ... Dietary supplements, while recommended in some cases, cannot replace a healthful diet." ( E).  "New vitamin E recommendations are in milligrams of alpha-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol can come from either natural vitamin E (called, somewhat incorrectly, d-alpha-tocopherol) or synthetic vitamin E (called, also somewhat incorrectly, dl-alpha-tocopherol). However, much of the alpha-tocopherol in synthetic vitamin E is inactive. For this reason, you have to take about twice as much of it to get the same effect1(1-3 Burton GW, Traber MG, Acuff RV, et al. Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:669-684;  Traber MG, Elsner A, Brigelius-Flohe R.)  Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopheryl acetates. (FEBS Lett. 1998;437:145-148).  "Food vitamin E has been found to be 2.6 times more retained in the liver than the isolated natural form" (Vinson J, Bose P, Lemoine L, Hsiao K. Bioavailability studies. In Nutrient Availability: Chemical and Biological Aspects. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (UK), 1989:125-127). "Based on combining two studies, it has been reported that food vitamin E appears to be 7.02 times more retained by the body than synthetic vitamin E (Thiel RJ. Food vitamin E is superior. ANMA Monitor 2001;5(3):6-9) --this may be because the body attempts to rid itself of synthetic forms as quickly as possible [28]. Vitamin E has been shown to reduce the risk of various cancers, coronary heart disease, cataract formation, and even air pollution [27,29]. It also is believed it may slow the aging process and decrease exercise-induced oxidative stress [27,29]. Artificial fats seem to increase the need for vitamin E" (ORAC Test by Brunswick Laboratories, Wareham (MA), February 2006). Vitamin E content is highest in oils ..., but is also relatively high in avocados (4.31 i.u. each)" (Vitamin-Mineral Manufacturing Guide: Nutrient Empowerment, volume 1. Nutrition Resource, Lakeport (CA), 1986; Theil).

     * Antioxidant activity in "Natural RRR-alpha-tocopherol, which is found in food, has 1.7 - 4.0 times the free radical scavenging strength of the other tocopherols" (Eberhardt MV, 2000;Theil). RRR-alpha tocopherol has 3 times the biological activity of the alpha-tocotrienol form, and "synthetic vitamin E simply does not have the same biologic activity of natural vitamin E" (Thiel).  "Natural vitamin E can have 4.0 times the free radical scavenging strength than synthetic vitamin E" (Allen SJ, et al, 2003;Thiel)
     * Cancer prevention has been shown to be enhanced by the food sources of Vitamin E.  "It has been suggested that alpha-tocopherol alone is less effective than the multiple forms of tocopherol that occur in nature; ... that gamma-tocopherol rather than alpha-tocopherol might be the most relevant form of vitamin E for cancer prevention" (Wright ME, Weinstein SJ, Lawson KA, et al. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E intakes and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1128-1135). However, use of alpha-tocopherol supplements may deplete both gamma- and delta-tocopherol levels, producing a negative effect (Huang HY, Appel LJ. Supplementation of diets with alpha-tocopherol reduces serum concentrations of gamma- and delta-tocopherol in humans. J Nutr. 2003;133:3137-3140;, 2009).  Other cancer studies indicate that "gamma-tocopherol (food source) may be the most important (or, perhaps, the only) form of vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer" (Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:2018-2023; Wright ME, Weinstein SJ, Lawson KA, et al. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E intakes and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1128-1135; Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, et al. Gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:3217-3222;

        "A lung cancer study at the University of Texas Anderson Cancer Center was reported in the September 2008 issue of the
         International Journal of Cancer. Researchers studied the benefits of the four tocopherol forms of vitamin E in the diet of about
         1500 healthy people and about 1000 lung cancer patients. All the subjects were about 61 years old.  The results showed that those
         who consumed the highest amount of dietary vitamin E per day (more than 7.73 mg) had a 53% reduction in lung cancer risk
         compared to those who consumed the lowest amount (4.13 mg). Alpha-tocopherol was the only form of vitamin E to show this
(Arlene Lengyel, 2009, Sorting Out Truth and Hyperbole,
* Improved Immune function -"Dietary vitamin E may be used to improve the immune functions in patients with
         advanced cancer, as a supplement to more specific immune interventions.”
(Malmberg KJ, Lenkei R, Petersson M, Ohlum T, Ichihara F, 
                  Glimelius, B,  Frodin JE, Masucci G, Kiessling R.  A short-term dietary supplementation of high doses of vitamin E increases T helper 1 cytokine production in patients with
                advanced colorectal cancer,  Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jun;8(6): 1772-8. PMID: 12060616;

  •  Vitamin F
          *  Cancer - “The results of animal studies have demonstrated that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can slow the  growth of cancer xenografts. ... Molecular mechanisms postulated to contribute to the multiple benefits of omega-3 fatty acids  include 1) suppressing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in tumors, thus decreasing proliferation of cancer cells and reducing 
    angiogenesis in the tumor; 2) decreasing the expression of AP-1 and ras, two oncogenes implicated in tumor promotion;
    3) inducing differentiation of cancer cells; 4) suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB activation and bcl-2 expression, thus allowing
     apoptosis of cancer cells; and 5) reducing cancer-induced cachexia. It seems reasonable to assume that after appropriate cancer
     therapy, consumption of omega-3 fatty acids might slow or stop the growth of metastatic cancer cells, increase longevity of
     cancer patients and improve their quality of life”
    (Hardman WE. Omega-3 fatty acids to augment cancer therapy. J Nutr. 2002 Nov;132(11 Suppl):3508S-
       3512S. Review. PMID: 12421878;

After much research, I found the best sources of vitamins and minerals are from fresh raw organically grown foods and herbs, or certain dried herbs in tea or capsule form.

During a wellness consultation with Laurie Lynch, N.D. you get information on certain foods and herbs that have high amounts of the specific vitamins and minerals, etc. that are needed by each unique individual.  But for now, here is a general guide to natural sources of vitamins.

What are the best sources of vitamins?
(1) Organically grown foods have the nutrients put back in the soil from natural sources, and
(2)   herbs which are more nutrient dense.

  •  Antioxidant consumption from high antioxidant containing foods is associated with a decreased risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease [Francheschi S]. . ... Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant containing foods is correlated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's [Engelhart MJ]. "Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body" [Chu YF; Thiel].  "At this time, the scientific evidence supports a diet high in food sources of antioxidants and other heart-protecting nutrients, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts instead of antioxidant supplements to reduce risk of CVD" (

  •  Vitamin A/beta carotene is found in colored fruits and vegetables, such as apricots, elderberries, tomatoes, papaya, cantaloupe, bilberries, brier hips, saw palmetto berries, lily of the valley (fruit), rowan (fruit), beets, carrots, sweet potatoes; broccoli, buckwheat, alfalfa, artichoke, Indian corn, okra; and green leafy vegetables and herbs, such as dandelion greens, yellow dock, lamb's-quarters, turnip greens, spearmint, parsley, blue violet (leaves), spinach, collards, kale, mustard greens, nettle (young leaves), chard, amaranth leaves, winter cress, watercress, chicory greens, calendula; cowslip (flowers), elecampane (flowers), garlic, Spirulina, Iceland moss, saffron, cayenne, eyebright, marshmallow root, red clover, yarrow, and yellow dock.

  •  Vitamin B is found in whole grains such as oats, spelt, kamut, corn, millet, quinoa, buckwheat, barley; legumes such as dried beans, lentils, green and dried peas, chick peas, tofu, lima beans, potatoes; and nuts and seeds (especially fenugreek, sunflower, and sesame); dark green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, Romaine lettuce, turnip greens, collards, kale, dandelion greens, watercress, mustard greens, lamb's quarters, spinach, leaf lettuce; Spirulina, kelp, avocados, cauliflower, asparagus, mung bean sprouts, sweet potatoes (baked),  parsnips, alfalfa, artichoke, celery, okra, rutabagas, sage; peaches, bananas, citrus, papaya, and pineapple.

* Vitamin B12  is manufactured by certain beneficial bacteria in our body, and is a little harder to get.  It is best found in the organically grown  herbs such as comfrey, parsley, Spirulina, sea weeds, tofu, miso, tempeh, spinach, and barley. "Plant uptake of B12 from the soil, especially from soil fertilized with manure, could provide some B12 for humans eating the plants, and may be why some vegans, who do not supplement with B12, do not develop B12 deficiency" (Mozafar, 1994).  

* Choline is found in bitter vegetables and herbs such as Dandelions leaves.

* Adenine B4 Adenine is found in whole grains, raw unfiltered honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fresh vegetables, most fresh fruits, and in the herbs blessed thistle, burdock root, cayenne pepper, caraway, cascara sagrada, cloves, couch grass, ginger, golden seal, hawthorn, hops, jojoba, kelp, spirulina, lady's slipper, mullein, rose hips, sage, sarsaparilla, spearmint, strawberry, thyme, and yucca (

* PQQ is found in fermented soybeans, parsley, green peppers, kiwi fruit and papaya.  "PQQ is believed to belong to the vitamin B group" (Reuters).

  • Vitamin C is found in fresh greens in abundance such as parsley, alfalfa, spirulina, ground ivy, kale, collards, mustard green, turnip greens, winter cress (buds & leaves), yellow dock, catnip, green amaranth, lamb's-quarters, watercress, bear's garlic (leaves), chickweed, coltsfoot, nettle (young leaves), broccoli, spearmint, peppermint, oregano, primrose (leaves), boneset, knotgrass, lance-leaf plantain, lettuce, nasturtium (leaves), scurvy grass, sorrel, spinach, spruce (young tips), comfrey; fresh rosehips, tomatoes,  cherries, citrus fruits, papaya, pineapple, watermelon, raspberries, barberries, bilberries (also leaves), blackberries and leaves, black currants, elderberries, brooklime, cantaloupe, rowan (fruit), wild persimmons, buckthorn (fruit), wild strawberries and leaves; sprouted alfalfa seeds, peppers, blue violet (leaves & flowers), kohlrabi, broccoli, green and red peppers, cauliflower, cabbage. carrot, cayenne, celery, coriander, horseradish, onions, radishes, potatoes, echinacea, garlic, and wormwood.

  •  Vitamin D is found in butter, oats, sweet potatoes, fenugreek seeds (soaked in purified water 12 hours), raw cold pressed vegetable oils, and the herbs, Aloe Vera (the live plant), alfalfa, dandelion greens, red raspberry, rose hips, and sarsaparilla, and
    "algae (kelp, spirulina) which synthesize vitamin D in shallow waters from the action of solar UV"

"The ideal way to obtain vitamin D is by exposure to sunlight. Sunshine in the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) spectrum strikes the skin, converting a cholesterol precursor called 7-dehydrocholesterol into vitamin D3, which is also called cholecalciferol, as well as a variety of similar chemicals, including the activated form of vitamin D, calcitriol. When atmospheric conditions are ideal and skies are clear, 30 minutes of whole-body exposure of pale skin to sunlight without clothing or sunscreen can result in the synthesis of between 10,000 and 20,000 IU of vitamin D. These quantities of vitamin D are large, and therefore capable of supplying the body's full needs. At the same time, the body has two mechanisms to prevent an excess of vitamin D from developing: first, further irradiation converts excess vitamin D in the skin to a variety of inactive metabolites."  As the skin tans, Vitamin D production decreases" (Adams and Hollis, "Vitamin D: Synthesis, Metabolism, and Clinical Measurement." In: Coe and Favus, eds., Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2002) p. 159; Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts, Winter 2005/Spring 2006, Early morning sun is best, then late afternoon sun. Avoid sun between 10am and 3 pm, because that is too much radiation.  

  • Vitamin E is found in whole grains, cold pressed oils, sweet potatoes, nuts, dark green vegetables, broccoli, spinach, asparagus, dandelion greens, burdock, comfrey, dong quai, kelp, skullcap, slippery elm, spirulina, yarrow, and apples.

  •  Vitamin F (unsaturated fatty acids):

     *  Omega-3 EFA is found in hemp seed oil, raw freshly-ground flax seeds, Chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, fresh raw walnuts, Brazil nuts, sesame seeds, avocados, some dark leafy green vegetables (kale, spinach, purslane, mustard greens, collards, etc.), canola oil (cold-pressed and unrefined), and soybean oil.  However almost all Canola and soybean oils are made from genetically engineered plants, and therefore contain tumor-causing bacteria, pathogenic viruses, and toxins, and should be avoided.
         *  Stearidonic acid (SDA)
is found in black currant seeds.
         *  Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
can be found in fish oils and Chinese water snake oil.

"Flax oils vs. fish oil - In his book, Dr. Rudin points out that most Omega-3 studies are based on fish oil. Rudin ... had better results with flaxseed oil in his own studies. This may be because flaxseed oil starts with the plant form of linolenic acid, ALA (alpha linolenic acid), whereas fish oil contains the animal form, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). The body makes its own DHA and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) from ALA. Although some claim that the amount of DHA made is small, the body doesn't need much DHA. ...  ALA and compounds made from it are also needed in the body for a number of essential functions. Fish oil cannot provide ALA, and therefore deprives the consumer of this critical compound. ... Most sources covering the different types of oil indicate that plant-based Omega-3s, or ALA, is the better choice"
(  In my research I found fish oil to elevate blood pressure.

"One tablespoon per day of flaxseed oil should provide the recommended daily adult portion of linolenic acid, although "time-released" effects of consuming nuts and other linolenic-rich foods is ...considered more beneficial than a once-daily oil intake. Flaxseed oil (and hemp seed oil) used for dietary supplementation should be kept in the refrigerator or freezer, and purchased from a supplier who refrigerates the liquid as well" (Rotella).

     * Omega-6 EFA: 
         *  Linoleic Acid (LA) i
s found in hemp seed oil, raw nuts and seeds (especially sunflower seeds), whole grains and legumes,       .        grape seed oil and flaxseed oil.
         *  Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA) can be found in borage oil, black currant seed, evening primrose oil, and algae such as spirulina .        and kelp.

    * Omega 9 fatty acid (Oleic Acid, OA) can be found in olive oil (the best source), olives, avocados, almonds, sesame seeds, pecans, pistachio nuts, filberts, cashews, hazelnuts, and macadamia nuts.  Nuts and seeds should be raw, fresh picked or frozen, and soaked in purified water for 12 to 24 hours (almonds require 36 hours) to inactivate their enzyme inhibitors and make them digestible. OA can also be found in organic butter.

  •  Vitamin K is found in cauliflower, tofu, polyunsaturated oils, kelp, alfalfa, leafy green vegetables, tomatoes, gotu kola, and yarrow. 

  •  Vitamin P (bioflavonoids, rutin, hesperidin) can be supplied with buckwheat, the white rind just under the skin of citrus fruits, black currants, cherries, grapes, other fruits.

  •  Vitamin T is found in sesame seeds.

  •  Vitamin U is found in raw cabbage.

What are minerals and why do we need them?
Dr. Linus Pauling, stated "You can trace every sickness, every disease and every ailment to a mineral deficiency."  
"Minerals are essential nutrients for every living cell in the human body" ( "Minerals are found the body's fluids and tissues and make up approximately four percent of the body's total weight" ( Minerals are various naturally occurring inorganic chemical elements found in the Earth.  They begin as rock or stone and are broken down by the natural process of erosion into minute crystalline mineral salts that form the basis of soil. Minerals are then taken from the soil by various plant forms and processed into organic compounds that are digestible to animals and humans. Minerals act as coenzymes and are needed by the body to maintain health and perform vital functions, such as formation of blood, maintenance of nerve function, growth, and maintenance of bones and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, energy production, fluid regulation, macronutrient metabolism, acid-alkaline balance (pH), and various other enzymatic reactions. Plants cannot produce minerals; they get them from the soil and combine them with proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids present in the plant. Humans and animals cannot properly absorb minerals from the ground or sea; they must get them already processed by vegetation.

The U.S. government has been issuing official warnings about the mineral depletion of our soils and foods since 1936. The U.S. Senate Document #264, published by the 2nd session of the 74th Congress in 1936 stated the following: "Most of us today are suffering from certain dangerous diet deficiencies which cannot be remedied until the depleted soils from which our foods come are brought [back] into proper mineral balance. Foods, fruits, vegetables and grains that are now being raised on millions of acres of land that no longer contain enough of certain needed minerals, are starving us - no matter how much of these foods we eat. Leading authorities state that 99% of the American people are deficient in these minerals, and that a marked deficiency in any one of the more important minerals actually results in disease. Any upset of the balance or any considerable lack of one or another element, however microscopic, causes problems and we sicken, suffer, and shorten our lives. Lacking vitamins, the system can make some use of minerals; but lacking minerals, vitamins are useless" (

 Minerals are classified according to their percentage of total body weight. Macrominerals comprise at least .01 percent of body weight, while trace or microminerals constitute less than .01 percent. An adequate supply of both macro- and trace minerals are equally important for optimal health.

Macro minerals include:

*  Calcium  (Ca) "is the most abundant mineral in the body and the fifth most abundant substance. About 99% is deposited in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is involved in the soft tissues, intracellular fluids and blood. ... The Calcium state of the bones is constantly fluctuating according to the diet and to the body’s needs. The 1% of ionized Calcium that circulates in the fluids of the body is small, but vital, to life." ( Adequate calcium must replenished daily. "The standard American diet is estimated to supply only one-third of our daily calcium needs" (  "20 percent of an adults bine calcium is reabsorbed and replaced every year. (new bone cells form as old ones break down.)" (Mindell, p. 92).

  •  Functions of Calcium include working with phosphorus to build and maintain bones, teeth, nerve tissue, and muscles (including the heart), stores minerals in the bones for use by the body; aids in regulation of the parathyroid gland, of heartbeat and blood pressure; prevention of muscle cramps; prevention of insomnia; hormone secretion; enzyme activation; regulation of blood ph balance, blood clotting, prevention of colon cancer, prevention of lead and radioactive strontium 90 absorption, control of the movement of fluids through cell walls, balance of amounts of other minerals, promotion of better use of iron by the body; inhibition of lead absorption by bones and muscles; prevention of bone loss; and aid in protein structuring of RNA and DNA.  It affects neurotransmitters (serotonin, acetylcholine and norepinephrine), nerve transmission, muscle growth and muscle contraction. assists interaction from the cell surface to the inside of the cell.

  •  Depletion of Calcium can occur as dissolved in acid. Other calcium depleters include distilled water, excess fat, animal protein and sugar;  Oxalic acid binds with calcium in the intestines preventing absorption.  Excess oxalic acid-containing foods such as rhubarb, chocolate, kale, spinach, beet greens, chard, almonds, cashews, cocoa; animal products, caffeine; sugar, mineral imbalance; excess iron, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus (in sodas); phytic acid (found in unsoaked, refined grains), deficiency of vitamin D and the amino acid L-Lysine (which can be destroyed by cooking). "The average American diet of meats, refined graind, and soft drinks... leads to increased bone loss in adults" (Balch).  Drugs such as anti−inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), aspirin (Salicylates)/other mild pain killers, cardiovascular drugs, gout medications, ulcer medications, antacids that inhibit the production of hydrochloric acid needed for absorption of calcium and other minerals. "Corticosteroid medications such as prednisone, often prescribed to reduce inflammation, can reduce calcium absorption and impair vitamin D metabolism. These effects can further contribute to the loss of bone and the development of osteoporosis associated with their long-term use". ( Excess stress can pull calcium from the bones.

  •  Deficiency of Calcium - Symptoms of calcium deficiency could include muscle cramps, nervousness, heart palpitations, brittle nails, eczema, hypertension, aching joints, increased cholesterol levels, rheumatoid arthritis, tooth decay, periodontal disease, insomnia, rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia (softening of bones and teeth), and numbness in the arms and legs.

*  Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral that accounts for about 0.05% of the body’s total weight. 65-70% of the body's supply is located in the bones and teeth together with calcium and phosphorus, the second highest concentration occurs in the muscles, while 30% is found in cellular fluids and some soft tissue (; 1 

  • Functions of Magnesium include assisting enzyme activity, bone formation, maintenance and repair of cells, promoting healthy teeth; healthy cell division; formation of thyroid hormone Thyroxin, transmission of nerve and muscle impulses, PH balance; conversion of blood sugar to energy, prevention of mood swings, protein synthesis, muscle relaxant, muscle contractions, vascular tone, aiding in prevention of calcium deposits, gall stones, and kidney stones; activation of enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids; aiding digestion, regulating neuromuscular contractions; aiding absorption and metabolism of other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium, as well as utilization of  B Complex and Vitamins C and E; aiding proper functioning of the muscles including those of the heart, and maintenance of electrical potentials of nerve and muscle membranes and for transmission of impulses across neuromuscular junctions.

  • Depletion of Magnesium can be caused by overcooked food, depleted soils, distilled water, animal products, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, anti-inflammatory drugs (Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement, cardiovascular drugs, diuretics, fluoride, gout medications, HRT, alcohol, caffeine, sugar, excess of synthetic Vitamin D, calcium, zinc, excess fats and proteins, and " milk that contains synthetic Vitamin D can deplete the body of magnesium" (Mindell, p 189).   "Foods high in oxalic acid, such as almonds, chard, cocoa, rhubarb, spinach, and tea, also inhibit magnesium absorption" (Balch, p. 20) 

  • Deficiency of Magnesium is common since this mineral is refined out out of many foods during processing. Magnesium deficiency could cause loss of calcium and potassium causing deficiency of those minerals.  Other deficiency symptoms could include indigestion, kidney damage and kidney stones, faulty transmission of nerve and muscle impulses, tremors, muscle problems, cramps and/or twitching; atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), formation of clots in the heart and brain, calcium deposits in kidneys, blood vessels and heart, depression, epileptic seizures, dizziness, mood swings, irritability, nervousness, insomnia, tantrums, confusion, impaired protein metabolism, cardiac arrest, asthma, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, lung conditions, digestive disorders, pH imbalance, premature wrinkles, deficient parathyroid secretion, and tetany.

*  Phosphorus (P) is the second most abundant mineral in the body and is found in every cell, and plays a part in almost every chemical reaction within the body. "About ...85 percent of phosphate occur in the (teeth and) skeleton as crystals of calcium phosphate" (

  • Functions of Phosphorus include bone and tooth formation, heart and kidney function, vitamin and enzyme metabolism, aid in chemical reactions, aid in energy production and increased endurance, aid in metabolic functions relating to the brain and the nerves, muscle action, enzyme formation; formation of DNA and RNA; facilitation of cellular communication; aid in carbohydrate, fat and protein utilization, regulation of heart beat, catalyzing B-complex vitamins, promotion of niacin and riboflavin digestion, regulation of blood PH balance; as part of nucleoproteins, which regulate cell division and reproduction; aid in the passage of substances through the cell walls, and promotion of hormone secretion.  Phosphorus works with calcium and must be in the right balance with calcium.

  •  Depletion of Phosphorus could be caused by antacids, cardiovascular drugs, gout medications, excessive calcium intake, Vitamin D deficiency, distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Phosphorus could cause poor mineralization of bones and teeth, osteoporosis, arthritis, pyorrhea, rickets, tooth decay, retarded growth, poor brain and nerve function, anxiety, weakness, diminished sexual function, anorexia, malaise, and pain, poor heart and kidney function, 

*  Potassium (K) is an important electrolyte, an essential mineral in intracellular fluid (98%), where it is the primary positive ion force. Potassium constitutes 5% of the total mineral content of the body.  Potassium is abundant in both plant and animal tissue. Potassium deficiencies are common, particularly among older people and those suffering chronic illness.

  •   Functions of Potassium include proper nervous system and muscular function, promotion of cellular integrity, prevention of cardiovascular problems, aid in transmission of electrical impulses, and regulation of nutrient transport to cells. Potassium works with phosphorus to oxygenate the brain, works with calcium in the regulation of neuromuscular activity, works with sodium and chloride to maintain normal pH levels.  It regulates carbohydrate and protein metabolism, energy production, fluid balance, hormone production, and normal heart rhythms. It promotes certain enzyme reactions in the body, and aids the kidneys in detoxifying the blood.

  •  Depletion of Potassium could be caused by anti-inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), antacids, aspirin (Salicylates)/other mild pain killers, bronchodilators, cardiovascular drugs, gout medications, diuretics, laxatives, alcohol, sugar, caffeine, excess sodium, kidney disorders, diabetes, stress, distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, diarrhea, and fasting.

  •  Deficiency of Potassium could cause excess sodium, edema, hypertension, slow irregular heartbeat, impaired growth, muscle damage, muscle weakness, paralysis, difficulty breathing, changes in the heart, heart failure, constipation, nervous disorders, insomnia, extreme fatigue, muscle weakness, blood sugar problems, and mood swings. "Hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis is an acute deficiency in potassium, accompanied by an elevation of blood and tissue pH. This disorder affects muscle function, resulting in difficult respiration and swallowing and, on occasion, death" (

 *  Sodium (Na) is a common mineral in both plant and animal tissues, the latter generally having a higher content. "Sodium is also present in all of the body's cells, as well as the blood and other body fluids. Approximately 60 percent of the body's sodium content is contained in extracellular (outside the cells) fluids, with 10 percent found inside the cells, and the remainder occurring in the bones" (

  •  Functions of Sodium include working with potassium and chlorine to regulate pH balance, muscle contraction, nerve stimulation and transmission, and stomach function, hydrochloric acid production, keep calcium and other minerals soluble, nutrient and waste transport, prevent heat prostration and sunstroke, regulate volume of body fluids, electrolyte balance, maintain pressure equilibrium between fluids outside cells and those inside, in elimination of carbon dioxide, muscle contraction, assists production of hydrochloric acid, and amino acid transport.

  •  Depletion of Sodium could be caused by aspirin (Salicylates)/other mild pain killers, cardiovascular drugs, diuretics, gout medications, excess potassium, excessive sweating, chronic diarrhea, vomiting, profuse perspiration, could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine..

  •  Deficiency of Sodium could cause low blood sugar, excessive sweating, arthritis, rheumatism, neuralgia, impaired carbohydrate digestion, nausea, dehydration, low blood pressure, muscle cramping, twitching, and weakness. apathy, lethargy, extreme fatigue, intestinal gas, short attention span, and mental confusion, heat exhaustion, heart palpitations, respiratory failure, . Sodium and potassium imbalances can cause cardiac arrhythmias and shock (a reduced flow of blood and oxygen to tissues throughout the body).

Some nutrition "experts" classify other minerals as macrominerals:

*  Chloride (Cl) is a "compound of chlorine and another element or radical" (Med. Dictionary). "Chlorine is a poisonous gas, but in the form of chloride compounds it is an essential mineral nutrient" (Moyhill Publishing, 2008).  "Chloride constitutes approximately 0.15% of human body weight. It is primarily found in cerebrospinal fluid and gastrointestinal secretions. Chloride is present in small amounts within bone. Chloride constitutes approximately 0.15% of human body weight. It is primarily found in cerebrospinal fluid and gastrointestinal secretions. Chloride is present in small amounts within bone, in plasma, and in interstitial fluid. Chloride is absorbed primarily in the intestine and secreted through urine, sweat, vomit, and diarrhea. Chloride has no known toxicity. ... A daily intake of more than 14 to 28 grams of salt is considered excessive) (

  • Functions of Chloride include working with sodium and potassium to maintain pH balance and balance between fluids and electrolytes inside and outside cells, maintenance of osmotic pressure, production of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid, aiding protein and mineral digestion, aiding the liver in detoxification, conservation of potassium, transporting carbon dioxide to the lungs for excretion.

  • Depletion of Chloride could be caused by diuretics, excessive potassium, as well as excessive perspiration, diarrhea and/or vomiting, could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.  "This results in metabolic alkalosis, a condition which leads to an elevated blood pH" (

  • Deficiency of Chloride could cause fluid imbalance, indigestion, metabolic alkalosis (decreased ventilation, a urinary pH change from alkali to acidic ranges, and excessive excretion of potassium),    Chloride deficiency is most notably conspicuous in infants fed exclusively on chloride-deficient formulae. This deficiency is characterized by a loss of appetite, lethargy, muscle weakness, and severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis" (

*  Silicon (Si) also falls in the "trace requirement" category.

  • Functions of Silicon include maintenance of connective tissues of the body such as tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, nails, skin and hair. It works with calcium to make strong bones, preventing cardiovascular disease, enhancing flexibility of arteries, protection against diseases such as tuberculosis, skin disorders, mucus membrane irritation; and counteracts the effects of aluminum, .

  •  Depletion of Silicon could be caused by distilled water, parasitic infections, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Silicon could cause brittle or easily broken nails and dry, splitting, thinning, or loss of hair, aging skin, wrinkles, insomnia, poor bone development, osteoporosis, and can eventually lead to structural abnormalities of the long bones and the skull.

*  Sulfur (S) is an acid-forming mineral that occurs in all cells such as hemoglobin and all body tissues, and is part of the structure of certain proteins.

  • Functions of Sulfur  include blood cleansing, antibiotic and immune building properties, aiding bile secretions and oxidation, aiding collagen and protein synthesis, maintaining oxygen balance needed for proper brain function, protecting against radiation and pollution, protecting cellular protoplasm, and slowing the aging process. Sulfur is involved in bone growth, blood clotting, muscle metabolism, enzymatic reactions, cellular respiration, maintaining the health of hair, skin, and nails. It also helps to counteract toxic substances in the body by combining with them to form harmless compounds. Sulfur works with B vitamins to aid metabolism.

  •  Depletion of Sulfur could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, moisture, and heat.

  •  Deficiency of Sulfur could include skin disorders such as rashes, eczema, blemishes; brittle nails and hair, poor immune function

Micro minerals include:
*  Arsenic (As) is essential in trace amounts when naturally occurring in food sources, however, elemental arsenic from the ground can be a deadly poison.

  •  Functions of Arsenic could include aiding some digestive problems, methionine metabolism.

  •  Depletion of Arsenic could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, excess folic acid.

  •  Deficiency of Arsenic could depress growth and impair reproduction.

*  Boron is is "a trivalent metelloid element found in nature only in combination" (Med. Dictionary). It is needed in trace amounts (less than 3 milligrams per day).

  • Functions of Boron include calcium absorption in bones, muscle, and connective tissue, promotion of healing of injured bones, muscles, and connective tissue, improvement in brain function, alertness, and the metabolism of bulk minerals such as calcium,
    phosphorus, and magnesium.  "Boron appears to affect calcium and magnesium metabolism and membrane function. It is essential for efficient absorption of calcium in the body and was found by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to significantly reduce the loss of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in post-menopausal women. It may also be helpful for ischemic heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease"
    (  The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture conducted a study that "indicated within eight days of supplementing the diet with 3 milligrams of boron, a test group of postmenopausal women lost 40% less calcium, one-third less magnesium, and slightly less phosphorus in their urine" (Balch, p. 17).

  •  Depletion of Boron can be caused by animal products, mineral imbalances, distilled water, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  "Deficiency of Boron may be related to the level of vitamin D and possibly other nutrients in the diet. Deficiency symptoms could include osteoporosis, arthritis, reduced levels of calcium or the inability to absorb supplemental calcium.

*  Bromine (Br) "is a nonmetallic element that is normally a red corrosive toxic liquid" (Med. Dictionary). Br does not occur uncombined in nature but is found in combination with other elements, notably sodium, potassium, magnesium, and silver, and is present in sea water, mineral springs, and salt deposits. It is soluble in water and as such acts as an oxidizing agent.  Bromine is absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract, and is found in extracellular fluids, such as saliva and gastric secretions.

  • Functions of Bromine include reduction of iodine toxicity, growth improvement, alterative and sedative action on the nervous and organ systems, and positive effect on diseases of the gastro-urinary system.

  •  Depletion of Bromine can be caused by animal products, mineral imbalances, distilled water, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, excess iodine and chlorine.

  •  "Deficiency of Bromine could cause iodine toxicity.

* Cesium (Cs) is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28°C (83°F), which makes it one of only five metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.[2] Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The metal is extremely reactive and pyrophoric, triggering explosions even at −116 °C upon contact with water. It is the least electronegative element that has stable isotopes, of which it has only one: 133Cs. This is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially 137Cs, are extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors" (

  •  Functions of Cesium include immune system support, infiltration and alkalization of cancer cells, causing cancer cells to die, fights unhealthy cellular replication, and limits the uptake of glucose to cancer cells.

  •  Depletion of Cesium can be caused by animal products, mineral imbalances, distilled water, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  "Deficiency of Cesium could compromise the immune system and contribute to cancer.

 *  Chromium is an essential component of glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Chromium deficiency "is quite common, especially in the United States, ...  Many people have problems absorbing chromium, particularly as they age" (

  •  Functions of Chromium include carbohydrate and glucose metabolism and transport to cells, insulin function, and balance of blood sugar levels, energy production, syntheses of cholesterol (needed by every cell in the body), fats, and protein.

  •  Depletion of chromium could be caused by anti−inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), depleted soils, distilled water, animal products, reduction in peripheral tissue sensitivity to glucose, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Chromium could cause blood sugar problems, anxiety, fatigue, and impaired cholesterol metabolism, and eventually coronary artery disease.

 *   Cobalt is an integral part of vitamin B-12. Because all vitamin B-12 is derived from bacterial synthesis, organic
cobalt is considered essential.

  •  Functions of Cobalt include production of red blood cells, aiding  enzymatic reactions,

  •  Depletion of Cobalt could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of cobalt may lead to pernicious anemia, retarded growth and nervous disorders.

*  "Copper is present in al body tissues, but is particularly concentrated in the liver and brain" (  

  • Functions of Copper aids formation and maintenance of bone, collagen, elastin, nerves, myelin sheath, and red blood cells. It is antioxidant, helps the healing process, energy production, aids the respiratory, nervous, and reproductive systems, aids protein and enzyme formation, protein metabolism, maintains hair and skin coloring, taste sensitivity, acts as a catalyst for a variety of
    enzymatic reactions. and increases iron absorption.  Copper works with iron in synthesis of oxygen in red blood.

  •  Depletion of Copper could be caused by distilled water, excess zinc, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, diseases such as Wilson disease and Menkes' disease.

  •  Deficiency of Copper could cause elevated cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, weakness, anemia, heart-related abnormalities, increased lipid (fat) levels in the blood. osteoporosis, diarrhea, poor respiratory function, baldness, gray hair, reduced taste sensitivity, dermatitis such as skin sores, edema, fatigue, impaired collagen production, labored respiration, and tissue and blood vessel damage.

Fluorine (fluoride) Fluoride in the body is in the form of calcium fluoride, and is found primarily in the bones and teeth.

  •  Functions of Fluorine include deposition of calcium to strengthen bones and teeth, reduce tooth decay, internal antiseptic, protection against infection,

  •  Depletion of Fluorine could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine, menopause, prolonged immobility.

  •  Deficiency of Fluorine could cause or contribute to increased cavities and unstable bones and teeth. "In animals, experimentally-induced fluorine deficiency was found to interfere with feed efficiency, inhibit growth, and reduce life expectancy" (

*  Germanium

  •  Functions of Germanium include aiding the immune system to help allergies, arthritis, infections, cancer, etc., relieving pain, working to lower cholesterol, delivering oxygen to tissues and removing toxins and poisons from the body.

  •  Depletion of Germanium could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Germanium could cause or contribute to fatigue, insomnia

*  Iodine is unevenly distributed in the environment. In large areas, often mountainous, environmental levels are inadequate for humans and animals.  "Iodine deficiency is estimated to affect at least 200 million people worldwide" (

  • Functions of Iodine include nourishment of the thyroid and production of thyroid hormone, aiding in prevention of mental retardation, metabolizing excess fat, aiding in the conversion of carotene to vitamin A, regulation of metabolism, cellular oxidation, and energy production;  protein, hormone, and cholesterol synthesis, promotion of  normal growth, lactation and reproduction,

  •  Depletion of Iodine could be caused by distilled water, animal products, depleted soils, refined foods, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of  Iodine could lead to breast lumps; serious birth defects; goiter (enlarged thyroid) and hypothyroidism (which in turn leads to weight gain, dry skin and hair, sensitivity to cold, sluggish metabolism, decreased libido, impaired mental functioning, slowed mental reactions and hardening of the arteries).  "Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can result in cretinism in newborns, involving mental retardation and a large tongue" (

*  Iron occurs in both plant and animal tissue, usually combined with protein. Because the body tends to retain iron very effectively, only trace amounts are needed in the diet. Approximately 10 percent of all women in the Western world are estimated to be iron-deficient, especially during child-bearing years and particularly during pregnancy and menstruation. Children and the elderly are also more prone to iron deficiency.

  •  Functions of Iron include production and oxygenation of red blood cells and muscle cells, oxygen transport, muscle functioning, enzyme reactions for energy production, growth, immune function, antioxidant activity

  •  Depletion of Iron could be caused by aspirin (Salicylates)/other mild pain killers, Vitamin C deficiency, thyroid medications, ulcer medications, cows milk, excess phosphorus, chronic intestinal bleeding, poor digestion and absorption, prolonged illness, ulcers, and the use of antacids, excessive menstruation, refined foods, deficient soils, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Iron could cause reduced physical performance, anemia, decreased immune function, fatigue, weakness, fragile bones, brittle hair and nails, hair loss, spoon-shaped fingernails or ridges from the base of the nails to the ends, difficulty
    swallowing, nervousness, paleness, insomnia, headache, learning disabilities, and slow mental responses.

*  Lithium reduces

  • Functions of Lithium include

  •  Depletion of Lithium could be caused by refined foods, animal products, distilled water, deficient soils, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Lithium could cause or contribute to aggressiveness, violence and self-destruction.

*  Manganese

  • Functions of Manganese is needed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, immune function, blood sugar regulation, bone growth, sex hormone production, reproduction, lactation, enzyme production and activation, fat oxidation, cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, collagen formation, energy metabolism, and purine metabolism, antioxidant activity, healthy nerve and brain function, manganese works with B vitamins to produces feelings of well-being.  

  •  Depletion of Manganese could be caused by distilled water, animal products, refined foods, deficient soils, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Manganese could cause a red, scaly, rash on the upper body, impaired reproduction, growth retardation, congenital malformations in the offspring, abnormal formation of bone and cartilage, osteoarthritis, and impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, tooth-grinding, multiple sclerosis, convulsions, vision and hearing problems, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and hypertension.

*  Molybdenum is found in bones, kidneys, and liver.

  • Functions of Molybdenum include nitrogen metabolism, aiding in converting purines to uric acid, antioxidant activity, promotion of  normal cell function, regulation of metabolism of calcium, magnesium, copper and nitrogen, prevention of mouth and gum disorders, aiding in prevention of cancer, promotion of male potency, aiding in production of several enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase which aids in mobilizing iron from liver reserves; aldehyde oxidase which is necessary for oxidation of fats, and sulphite oxidase. Molybdenum, along with copper, is necessary for proper utilization of iron, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxifcation  of toxic sulfites commonly used to preserve food. Molybdenum works with copper in proper utilization of iron.

  •  Depletion of Molybdenum could be caused by excess sulphites (common preservative of foods and drugs), distilled water, animal products, refined foods, deficient soils, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Molybdenum could cause or contribute to cancer, retarded weight gain, poor appetite, anemia,  impaired reproduction, increased heartbeat, increased rate of breathing, visual problems, dental caries, and shortened life expectancy.

Nickel is another element which has been shown by substantial evidence to be necessary in trace amounts.

  •  Functions of Nickel include hormone, lipid and membrane metabolism, enzyme activation, cell membrane integrity, reduces B12 requirement,

  •  Depletion of Nickel could be caused by distilled water, animal products, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Nickel could result in impaired liver function, changes in skin color, decreased growth, and reproductive problems.

*  Selenium  

  • Functions of Selenium include antioxidant activity, working with Vitamin E to produce antibodies, binding of toxic metals like mercury, amino acid metabolism, promotion of normal body growth and fertility, production of prostaglandins (substances that affect blood pressure and platelet aggregation, protection of the cell "machinery" that generates energy, membrane protection, reduction of cancer risk, enhanced immune system, thyroid function, protection against heart disease, protection of liver.  Selenium is incorporated into molecules of the enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), that protects red blood cells and cell membranes against free radical oxidation.

  •  Depletion of Selenium could be caused by anti−inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), distilled water, animal products, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Selenium occurs in regions of the world where soils are selenium-poor and low-selenium foods are produced. Selenium deficiency could cause or contribute to premature aging, cardiomyopathy, heart attack, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, infertility and increased risk of cancer.


  •  Functions of Tin supports hair growth and can enhance reflexes.

  •  Depletion of Tin could be caused by distilled water, animal products, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Tin  could cause male pattern baldness, reduced response to sound and loud noises, and diminished haemoglobin synthesis.


  •  Functions of Vanadium include blood sugar regulation, cellular metabolism, bone, cartilage, and teeth formation, growth and reproduction, inhibits cholesterol synthesis, 

  •  Depletion of Vanadium could be caused by distiller water, animal products, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

  •  Deficiency of Vanadium may lead to reproductive problems, heart and kidney disease, infant mortality, diabetes and hypoglycemia.

*  Zinc is found in all tissues and is a component of insulin and more than 2000 major body enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase. "Approximately 10% of the United States population ingests <50% of the recommended daily allowance for zinc" ().

Functions of Zinc include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, growth and development, cellular membrane structure and function, promotion of prostate function, growth of reproductive organs, wound healing, enhancing immune function, liver protection, aid protein synthesis and collagen formation, and improvement of taste and smell, aid in various enzyme reactions, manufacture of body protein, aid function of the thymus gland and the spleen; maintain the proper levels of vitamins A and E in the blood, involvement in the Krebs cycle and energy production; maintenance of healthy skin and taste buds; involved in digestion and metabolism including those for breakdown of alcohol, bone metabolism, protein digestion and phosphorus metabolism, regulation of oil glands, detoxification, and vitamin absorption, particularly vitamins A and E.

Depletion of Zinc could be caused by drugs such as oral contraceptives, anti−inflammatory drugs (includes Corticosteroids, NSAIDS), cardiovascular drugs, distilled water, animal products, ulcer medications, diarrhea, liver and kidney disease, alcoholism, diabetes, malabsorption, malnutrition, old age, poor integrity of the small intestine.

Deficiency of Zinc could cause or contribute to free radical damage, DNA damage, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and epilepsy; impaired energy production, impaired protein synthesis, and impaired collagen formation; cancer, poor immune function, susceptibility to infections, birth defects, toxemia, stress and fatigue, loss of appetite, growth retardation (including dwarfism), underdeveloped sex organs, enlarged prostate, lack of sexual maturation, diminished libido, loss of fertility; skin changes such as dermatitis, rash on the face, groin, hands and feet, acne, white spots on finger and toe nails, and stretch marks sun sensitivity; loss of senses of taste and smell, poor night vision; fatigue, lethergy, apathy, environmental sensitivity, dandruff, hair loss, lack of pubic hair, and diarrhea. “Zinc deficiency does not exist without deficiency of other nutrients” [Cunnane SC; Thiel].

Trace amounts of other minerals also appear in the body, but their functions have not been determined. Many of these minerals can be very toxic and harmful when ingested in inorganic form, however, the organic plant sources are believed to be nontoxic and health promoting.

Lanthanum, Praeseodymium, Neodymium, Thulium, Samarium, Europium & Ytterbium: Enhance cell growth, extends life.
Deficiency may shorten lifespan.

Sources of minerals:
There are various forms of minerals used in nutritional supplements such as the elemental inorganic minerals, chelated minerals, and coloidal minerals.  Then there is the natural organic form found in foods and the human body.

*  Inorganic elemental minerals from the ground or sea - Mineral supplements "are made from ground rocks, shells and metal. A lot of calcium supplements on the market are high in the toxic metal lead, and the calcium itself is near worthless. This stuff just is not assimilated or healthy for human consumption" (  "Too much of metals like iron, copper, cobalt, manganese and zinc is pro-oxidative (1), damaging nutrients, arteries (2) messenger-substances, cell-DNA (3) and enzymes (4), increases hart attack risk, and can cause diabetes (5), colon cancer (6) Parkinson's disease (7) and infertility. (8) When weak or sick, the body for example decreases iron level, to protect itself against viruses that need iron to grow. Unfortunately, most physicians think this requires supplementary iron ; they often call it anemia. Why are especially those metals recommended more and more ? Do they want to cause new diseases, so they 'have to' develop new drugs ?  Too much of one mineral decreases levels of other minerals / trace elements" (9;

  • Arsenic naturally occurring in foods is non-toxic and health promoting, however, arsenic in its elemental form from the ground or water is extremely poisonous. Arsenolite is an arsenic mineral, chemical formula arsenic trioxide. It is formed as an oxidation product of arsenic sulfides.

Arsenic trioxide ingestion could cause digestive problems: vomiting, abdominal pains, diarrhea often accompanied by bleeding; muscle cramps, fatigue, weakness, hair loss and dermatitis. "muscle cramps, fatigue, weakness, hair loss and dermatitis. "Chronic symptoms include headaches, convulsion, confusion, drowsiness and change in color of fingernails" (  "Sub-lethal doses can lead to convulsions, cardiovascular problems, inflammation of the liver, ... white lines (Mees stripes) on the nails, ... hair loss. Lower doses lead to liver and kidney problems and to changes in the pigmentation of the skin. Cases of acute arsenic poisoning are known after inhalation and after skin contact with arsenic trioxide. The first signs are severe irritation, either of the respiratory tract or of the exposed skin, followed by longer term neurological problems. Even dilute solutions of arsenic trioxide are dangerous on contact with the eyes... Arsenic trioxide has been shown to be a human carcinogen" (Wikipedia). "Coma and death are possible when toxic arsenic levels accumulate" (

Studies on workers exposed in copper foundries in the U.S., Japan and Sweden indicate a risk of lung cancer 6–10 times higher for the most exposed workers compared with the general population. Long-term ingestion of arsenic trioxide either in drinking water or as a medical treatment can lead to skin cancer. Reproductive problems (high incidence of miscarriage, low birth weight, congenital deformations) have also been indicated in one study of women exposed to arsenic trioxide dust as employees or neighbours of a copper foundry" (Wikipedia).

Even though arsenic trioxide has been shown to cause cancer, arsenic trioxide (under the trade name Trisenox) is used it to treat cancer, especially leukemia. It is also used to treat syphilis, and some other conditions.  It is also used in pigment, rodent and animal poison, insecticide, blue colorant for fireworks, for murder and suicide. 

  •  Bromine naturally occurring in foods is non-toxic and health promoting, however, in its elemental form from the ground or water bromine is extremely poisonous.  Bromine is pro-oxidative, and "has a powerful corrosive action on the skin, destroying the tissue, and the vapor is strongly irritating to the eyes and the membranes of the nose and throat" (  Inorganic elemental bromine residues in food compete with iodine for absorption into the thyroid gland and other tissues in the body.

    * Rats, fed on a methyl bromide fumigated diet for 20 weeks developed partial limb paralysis, scaly tails, loss of hair, reduced food intake, inactivity, impaired reproduction and increased mortality.
    Rabbit groups were fed for one year on diets which had been fumigated with methyl bromide for 24 hours. When the residue was equivalent to 3254 ppm bromide the animals developed a progressive paralysis and urinary retention and all died within two weeks. In the others, for which the residue was equivalent to 67 and 75 pm bromide, there was reduction in weight gain and some polydypsia and polyuria. Post mortem, bronchopneumonia was common in the high dose group and changes were found in the brain
    (Dudley et al., 1940).
    * The feeding of fumigated cereals to cattle may result in bromide residues in milk. Lynn (1963) found 10-20 ppm in milk from cows fed a diet containing 43 ppm bromide.
    * Bromine is used on a variety of stored products including dried fruits, pulses, nuts, oilseeds, animal feed and other dry foods; as a conditioner for flour; in the production of brominated vegetable oils as emulsifiers in some soft drinks and fruit drinks; and in drugs such as sedatives and anticonvulsants. Industrial uses include insecticides in clothing, furniture and timber, drilling fluids, fuel additives, photographic chemicals, rubber additives, and flame retardants. Even though inorganic bromine has been shown to be a toxic corrosive irritant, it is used in multimineral supplements promoted as a health aid.
  •  Calcium - "Calcium carbonate is the rock known as limestone or chalk. It is used in the manufacture of paint, rubber, plastics, ceramics, putty, polishes, insecticides, and inks. It is also used in fillers for adhesives, matches, pencils, crayons, linoleum, insulating compounds, and welding rods" [15, Thiel]. "Excessive amounts of (elemental, inorganic) calcium over time can lead to kidney stones and soft tissue calcification, and possibly contribute to atherosclerosis" (  New Zealand researchers Indicated that (inorganic) calcium supplements, often prescribed after the menopause to counter the loss of bone density, raised the risk of heart attack in older women (The Times April 21, 2008).  "Several vitamin companies use D1-calcium-phosphate, but do not list it on the label.  This form of calcium interferes with the absorption of nutrients in a multisupplement" (Balch, p. 18)"Too much calcium causes osteoporosis and arteriosclerosis" (
  •  Cesium in elemental form from the ground "can cause cardiac arrhythmia in large doses" (
  •  "Copper (cupric) carbonate is the rock known as malachite. It is used as a paint and varnish pigment, plus as a seed fungicide [15, Thiel].
  •  Fluoride - "Too much fluoride is toxic and increases hip-fracture risk. (14;"When there is a high amount of fluoride in the drinking water, a problem called chronic dental fluorosis can occur. The tooth enamel becomes dull and unglazed with some pitting (mottled enamel). At very high concentrations (over 2. 5 parts per million) dark brown stains appear on the teeth. ... In addition, high fluoride intake (20-80 milligrams per day) over a period of many years can cause skeletal fluorosis, which causes the bones to be chalky and brittle" ( "Water fluoride levels greater than 8 ppm can trigger arthritic ... symptoms. Long-term consumption of fluoride above 50 mg daily can contribute to bone and teeth deformities" (
  •  Iodide - "Too much iodide ... is pro-oxidative too (12), and can increase thyroid activity. (13;
  •  Iron - "Human milk and cow's milk both contain low levels of iron; however, the iron in human milk is in a highly absorbable form. Infants are at risk for acquiring iron deficiency because their rapid rate of growth needs a corresponding increased supply of dietary iron, for use in making blood and muscles. Cow's milk formula is fortified with iron. Human milk is a better source of iron than cow's milk, since about half of the iron in human breast milk is absorbed by the infant's digestive tract. In contrast, only 10 percent of the iron in cow's milk is absorbed by the infant. Toddlers who drink excessive whole cow's milk are at risk for iron deficiency" (  Iron sulfide minerals are oxidized to form ferrous sulfate, the rock known as melanterite. It is used as a fertilizer, wood preservative, weed-killer, and pesticide" [15, Thiel].
  •  Molybdenum - "Excessive molybdenum intake can also result in various symptoms, including gout-like symptoms and elevated uric acid levels" (
  •  Phosphorus - "The standard American diet can be over-high in its phosphorus content, especially with regard to soda, which can contain up to 500 mg of phosphorus per serving and create calcium-phosphorus imbalance" (
  •  Selenium - "In the largest and longest clinical trial to date comparing the effects of selenium supplements versus placebo ..., daily doses of the mineral failed to reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and may have increased it. In the study, people who took a 200 microgram selenium supplement each day for almost eight years had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes relative to people who took a placebo" (Enig, PhD and Fallon, 2007).

    "Studies show moderate levels of selenium mineral are associated with longevity. However, when selenium levels pass a
    certain level, (150 ng/mL) the odds of dying from any cause, or from cancer specifically, begin to go upward, according to a large study done by Dr. Joachim Bleys of Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health in Baltimore (
    Thomson CD, 2008).

    Selenium toxicity symptoms could include hair loss, muscle cramps, diarrhea, joint pain, deformed fingernails, and fatigue, loss of finger nails and blistering skin.  FDA laboratories have found some samples of selenium supplements to "contain extremely high levels of selenium--up to 40,800 micrograms per recommended serving, or more than 200 times the amount of selenium per serving (i.e., 200 micrograms) indicated on the labels of the products"
    (Patrick L).

    "In recent years, the role of selenium in the prevention of a number of degenerative conditions including cancer,
    inflammatory diseases, thyroid function, cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, aging, infertility, and
    infections, has been established by laboratory experiments, clinical trials, and epidemiological data. Most of the
    effects in these conditions are related to the function of selenium in antioxidant enzyme systems. Replenishing
    selenium in deficiency conditions appears to have immune-stimulating effects, ...Animal data, epidemiological data, and intervention trials have shown a clear role for selenium compounds in both prevention of specific cancers and antitumorigenic effects in post-initiation phases of cancer
    (Patrick L, 2004).
  •  Sodium - "The results of almost 40 years of research by Dr. Walter Kempner indicate that is unnatural and harmful to use the amount of salt to which we have become accustomed" (). Table salt contains inorganic sodium, chlorine, iodine (if iodized), aluminum (to prevent it from turning gray and clumping), and sugar (to cover up the aluminum taste) and is not properly absorbable and therefore harmful, causing hypertension, fluid retention, addiction, blood sugar problems, etc. "Problems related to excessive sodium intake are far more common among people who eat the standard American diet, and can lead to high blood pressure and PMS, among other conditions" (

Chelated minerals are said to be slightly absorbable (about 40%), but are they are not in the form the human body can use.  "Chelated minerals are generally crushed industrial rocks that are processed with one or more acids. Probably the biggest difference in minerals now compared to 1947 is that some companies have decided to industrially produce versions of minerals attached to peptides. Essentially they take a rock or industrial mineral salt, chemically alter it, and attempt to attach it to the mineral. This results in a mineral that is different from normal mineral salts, but does not turn the substance into a food. Examples of this include the various mineral ascorbates, picolinates, aspartates, glycinates, and chelates. It needs to be understood that since there is not a universally accepted definition of the term 'chelate', when this term is used on a label, one generally does not know if the chelate is amino-acid based or some type of industrial acid. While it is true that humans can, and do, utilize minerals from USP mineral salts or chelated minerals, this is not as safe (or even normally as effective) as consuming them from foods (or in the case of real food supplements, food concentrates",

"Nearly all minerals in supplements ...are really industrial chemicals made from processing rocks with one or more acids. The consumption of this “other half” of the mineral compound is not only unnatural, it can lead to toxicity" (Thiel)..

  •  "Calcium ascorbate is calcium carbonate processed with ascorbic acid and acetone. It is a manufactured product used
    in 'non-food' supplements. Calcium chloride is calcium carbonate and chlorine and is the by product of the Solvay ammonia-soda process. It is used for antifreeze, refrigeration, fire extinguisher fluids, and to preserve wood and stone. Other uses include cement, coagulant in rubber manufacturing, controlling dust on unpaved roads, freeze proofing of coal, and increasing traction in tires. Calcium citrate is calcium carbonate processed with lactic and citric acids. It is used to alter the baking properties of flour. Calcium gluconate is calcium carbonate processed with gluconic acid, which is used in cleaning compounds. It is used in sewage purification and to prevent coffee powders from caking. Calcium glycerophosphate is calcium carbonate processed with dl-alpha-glycerophosphates. It is used in dentifrices, baking powder, and as a food stabilizer. Calcium lactate is calcium carbonate processed with lactic acid. It is used as a dentifrice and as a preservative" [15
    ; Thiel].
  •  Chromium picolinate is a man-made substance, of chromium chelated to picolinic acid. "Picolinic acid is used in herbicides [17; Thiel]; furthermore "picolinic acid is an excretory or waste product. It is not metabolized by or useful to the body" [25; Thiel]. Scientists report, “some research groups recently suggested that chromium (III) picolinate produces significantly more oxidative stress and potential DNA damage than other chromium supplements” [26; Thiel]. Chromium chloride is a preparation of hexahydrates. It is used as a corrosion inhibitor and waterproofing agent" [15, Thiel].
  •  "Copper aspartate is made "from the reaction between cupric carbonate and aspartic acid (from chemical synthesis). It is a manufactured product used in 'non-food' supplements [18; Thiel]. Copper gluconate is copper carbonate processed with gluconic acid. It is used as a deodorant [19; Thiel]. Copper (cupric) glycinate is a copper salt processed with glycine. It is used in photometric analysis for copper [15; Thiel]. Copper sulfate is copper combined with sulfuric acid. It is used as a drain cleaner and to induce vomiting; it is considered as hazardous heavy metal by the City of Lubbock, Texas that "can contaminate our water supply" [20;Thiel].
  •  Dicalcium phosphate is the rock known as monetite, but can be made from calcium chloride and sodium phosphate. It is
    used in 'non-food' supplements [18, Thiel].
  •  Flourine - "Levels in drinking water artificially fluoridated with sodium fluoride can often reach toxic levels which then has adverse effect on many enzyme systems in the body Just like so called toxic metals like aluminium, chromium and arsenic are poisonous in the inorganic chemical form, but safe and even essential in their natural plant form" (TJ Clark,com). Excess flourine, especially in the form of sodium flouride (as in flouridated water) causes mottled teeth and can be toxic" (Airola, p. 281).
  •  Iron - "Ferric pyrophosphate is an iron rock processed with pyrophosphoric acid. It is used in fireproofing and in pigments
    [15]. Ferrous lactate is a preparation from isotonic solutions. It is used in 'non-food' supplements [15; Thiel].
  •  "Magnesium carbonate is the rock known as magnesite. It is used as an antacid, laxative, and cathartic. Magnesium chloride is magnesium ammonium chloride processed with hydrochloric acid. It fireproofs wood, carbonizes wool, and is used as a glue additive and cement ingredient.  Magnesium citrate is magnesium carbonate processed with acids. It is used as a cathartic.
    Magnesium glycinate is a magnesium salt processed with glycine. It is used in ‘non-food’ supplements. Magnesium oxide is normally burnt magnesium carbonate. It is used as an antacid and laxative" [15, Thiel].
  •  "Manganese carbonate is the rock known as rhodochrosite. It is used as a whitener and to dry varnish [15]. Manganese gluconate is manganese carbonate or dioxide processed with gluconic acid. It is a manufactured item used in 'non-food' supplements [15].
    Manganese sulfate is made "from the reaction between manganese oxide and sulfuric acid" [18]. It is used in dyeing and varnish production [15, Thiel].
  •  "Molybdenum ascorbate is molybdenite processed with ascorbic acid and acetone. It is a manufactured item used 'non-
    food' supplements [21]. Molybdenum ascorbate is molybdenite processed with ascorbic acid and acetone. It is a manufactured item used 'non-food' supplements [21]. Molybdenum disulfide is the rock known as molybdenite. It is used as a lubricant additive and hydrogenation catalyst [15, Thiel].
  • Potassium - "Potassium chloride is a crystalline substance consisting of potassium and chlorine. It is used in photography [15].
    Potassium iodide is made from HI and KHCO3 by melting in dry hydrogen and undergoing electrolysis. It is used to
    make photographic emulsions and as an expectorant [15].  Potassium sulfate appears to be prepared from the elements in liquid ammonia. It is used as a fertilizer and to make glass" [15, Thiel].
  •  Selenium - "Most selenium is made as a byproduct of copper refining. It also accumulates in the residues from sulphuric acid manufacture. Extraction is complex since the method employed will depend upon what other compounds or elements are present. The first step usually involves an oxidation in the presence of sodium carbonate (soda ash).  The selenite Na2SeO3 is acidified with sulphuric acid. Any tellurites precipitate out leaving selenous acid, H2SeO3, in solution. Selenium is liberated from selenous acid by SO2" ( "Sodium selenite (used in most supplements) is not a food, but is the result of combining sodium hydroxide and selenious acid; sodium selenite is commonly used to remove green color from glass during glass manufacturing [40]" (Thiel)"Some inorganic selenium compounds also been shown to be mutagenic and pro-oxidant" (Marco Vinceti,, 2000). "Supplementary selenium can enhance cancer. (10) Selenium-compounds can react upon glutathion (an antioxidant) originating aggressive peroxides and oxygen radicals. (11;  "Seleniomethionine is a selenium analog of methionine. It is used as a radioactive imaging agent" [15 Thiel].
  •  "Zinc acetate is made from zinc nitrate and acetic anhydride. It is used to induce vomiting [15]. Zinc carbonate is the rock known as smithsonite or zincspar. It is used to manufacture rubber [15]. Zinc chloride is a combination of zinc and chlorine. It is used as an embalming material [15]. Zinc citrate is smithsonite processed with citric acid. It is used in the manufacture of some toothpaste [15]. Zinc gluconate is a zinc rock processed with gluconic acid. Gluconic acid is used in many cleaning compounds [15]. Zinc lactate is smithsonite processed with lactic acid. Lactic acid lactate is used as a solvent [15]. Zinc monomethionine is a zinc salt with methionine. It is used as a ‘non-food’ supplement. Zinc orotate is a zinc rock processed with orotic acid. Orotic acid is a uricosuric (promotes uric acid excretion) [15]. Zinc oxide is the rock known as zincite. It is used as a pigment for white paint and as part of quick-drying cement [15]. Zinc phosphate is the rock known as hopeite. It is used in dental cements [15]. Zinc picolinate is a zinc rock processed with picolinic acid. Picolinic acid is used in herbicides [17]. Zinc sulfate can be a rock processed with sulfuric acid. It is used as a corrosive in calico-printing and to preserve wood [15]. There is a relatively easy way to tell if minerals are industrial chemicals. Whenever there are two-words on a label describing a mineral, it is a logical to conclude that the substance is an industrial mineral product and not 100% food. The exception is chromium GTF (the GTF stands for glucose tolerance factor) which is food if it is from nutritional yeast [18, Thiel].

Coloidal minerals are derived from shale, a sedimentary rock, ground finely enough to keep it suspended in a liquid, and marketed as  plant derived because 100 million years ago, these minerals were plants. However, over time, they have become rocks. Ground rocks are not usable to humans and could have harmful effects. "Shale is mined, crushed, ground to a powder-like consistency, and placed into large stainless steel vats. The vats are then submerged in cool, contaminant free water at low temperatures. After 3-4 weeks, water-soluble components of the shale enter into the water and becomes a solution called leachate. The bitter-tasting leachate is siphoned off, filtered and ready for use as a colloidal mineral supplement. Although colloidal minerals are hyped as being 95% absorbable, there is no documented evidence to support this claim. Another claim is that colloidal minerals are "negatively charged, hence increase intestinal tract absorption." The wall of the lumen of the small intestine, where many minerals are absorbed, when at a neutral pH of 7, is
negatively charged. Since similar charges oppose each other, the intestinal walls would repel negatively charged colloidal minerals, hampering the absorption rate. The mineral content in colloidal minerals depends on the mineral content of the original shale it is made from. This can cause the concentration of the minerals to be very random. Minerals and trace elements are interdependent, that means they work best when the ratio of minerals and trace minerals are balanced. With colloidal minerals the ratios are random and therefore not optimized. Additionally, colloidal minerals are often high in aluminum content. Aluminum is considered a "toxic" element" ( "Colloidal minerals are metals and may remain in the body until a potentially harmful concentration has been reached" (

“When we take out from foods some certain salt, we are likely to alter the chemicals in those foods. When extracted from food, that certain chemical salt extracted, may even become a poison. Potash by itself is a poison, whether it comes from a food or from the drugstore. This is also the case with phosphorus. You thereby overtax your system, and your functions must work harder, in order to throw off those inorganic salts or poisons introduced... The chemical elements that build our body must be in biochemical, life-producing form. They must come to us as food, magnetically, electrically alive, grown from the dust of the earth... When we are lacking any element at all, we are lacking more than one element. There is no one who ever lacked just one element. We don’t have a food that contains only one element, such as a carrot entirely of calcium or sprouts totally made of silicon”
[Bernard Jensen].

Minerals from whole foods 
"While plants are designed to ingest and break-down minerals, humans are not. "Humans were designed to eat food and to get their minerals from foods. Foods DO NOT naturally contain minerals bound to substances such as picolinic acid, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, etc. When supplementation is indicated, only supplements made from 100% food should be considered for supporting optimal health" (Thiel).

Many botanical plants contain vitamins, minerals and trace minerals if these nutrients are present in the soil. The body can usually digest vitamins and minerals much easier through plant origin than from those of fish or animal origin, or from elemental inorganic minerals. "The problem is the fact that due to today's farming practices, the soil our food supply is grown in is depleted of trace minerals. The land is not ever allowed to lay fallow, although the Bible tells us to let our land lay fallow once every 7 years. The crops are not rotated regularly. The fertilizer's that farmers use only replace 3 of the major minerals (potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus) and none of the trace minerals" (

"In 1999 the Nobel prize for medicine was awarded to Gunter Blobel who discovered that nutritional minerals need protein chaperones for absorption. Such protein chaperones do not exist in mineral salt forms which are commonly included in 'antioxidant' or multivitamin formulas. Protein chaperones do, of course, exist in foods [Rouhi AM.;Thiel].

  • "Selenium - "The predominant form of selenium found in the body and in food selenium is selenocysteine [34]. An animal study concluded that food selenium was 3 times less toxic than sodium selenite [35]; this seems to be consistent with human research [24]. Other research suggests that food selenium is 2.26 times more retained in the liver than sodium selenite [36]. Food selenium (which is normally a specially grown yeast food) should not be confused with yeasts which have been simply fortified with sodium selenite, which can be quite toxic [34,35]. An in vitro study found that food selenium had 17.6 times the antioxidant effect than did seleniomethionine [13]. One study found that food selenium was 123.01 more effective than selenium methionine in preventing nonenzymatic glycation in diabetics [37]" (Thiel).

The Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand performed a placebo-controlled study comparing eating Brazil nuts to the selenium supplement in the form of selenomethionine. "Participants consumed 2 Brazil nuts thought to provide approximately 100 mug Selenium, 100 mug Selenium as selenomethionine, or placebo daily for 12 wk.  Consumption of 2 Brazil nuts daily is as effective for increasing selenium status and enhancing glutathione peroxidase activity as 100 mug Se as selenomethionine" (Thomson CD, 2008).

  •  Zinc from food is 6.46 times more absorbed into blood than other sources. [Vinson J] ""Dietary zinc has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties" (Meerarani P; Thiel)

What are the best sources of minerals?
Fresh organically grown foods, and especially sea vegetables and herbs because they are higher in nutrients than other foods, are the best sources.

  •  Sources of Bromide include barley, beets, broccoli, chard, cucumber seeds, lima beans, onions, peppers, radishes, and zucchini.
  • Sources of Calcium (the most abundant mineral in the body) include green leafy vegetables and herbs such as parsley, alfalfa, aloe vera, kelp and other sea vegetables, cabbage family vegetables, asparagus, carob, nuts (soaked 24 hours), sea vegetables, whole grains, sesame seeds, tofu, Irish moss, lamb's quarters, green amaranth, turnip greens, almonds (dried), lance-leaf plantain, leeks, lentils, lettuce, marshmallow root, nettle (young leaves), okra, oranges, peas, radishes, rose hips, shave grass, shepherd's purse, silverweed, turnips, yellow toadflax, cayenne pepper, chamomile, fennel, marshmallow (the herb, not the candy), sage, white oak bark, burdock root, chamomile, dandelion greens, flaxseed, paprika, raspberry leaves, rose hips, and other herbs.  (High oxylic acid foods such as "spinach and Swiss chard bind calcium in the digestive tract and are not a ready source" (
  •  Sources of Chloride coconut (dried), parsley, celery, bananas, coconut (fresh), kale, watercress, cabbage, barley, dandelion greens, turnip greens, sweet potatoes, lettuce, endive, hazelnuts, spinach,  beets, Brazil nuts, carrots, rhubarb, kohlrabi, turnips (white), pecans, whole grains, seaweeds, and tomatoes.
  •  Sources of Magnesium include green foods, raw soaked nuts, sesame seeds, dried beans, tofu, whole grains, peas (dried), black eyed peas, coconut (dried), collards, chard, spinach, lettuce, watercress, alfalfa, cabbage, carrots, parsnips, potatoes, radishes, beets, cayenne, celery, cucumbers, dandelion greens, asparagus, okra, parsley; apples, apricots, bananas, blackberries, cherries, figs (dried), grapes, lemons, limes, oranges, peaches, raspberries; black willow (bark), peppermint, primrose (leaves), catnip, ginger, gotu cola, red clover, rosemary, valerian, wood betony, kelp and other sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Phosphorus include whole grains, garlic, legumes, sea vegetables, and sesame, sunflower seeds and nuts (soaked 24 hours), dulse, kelp (edible), Irish moss, peas, lima beans, lentils, radishes, apricots, parsley, parsnips, lamb's-quarters, cauliflower, artichokes, green amaranth, broccoli, dandelion greens, potatoes (baked), okra, elderberries, endive, watercress, sweet potatoes (baked), kale, spinach, collards, asparagus, celery, turnip greens,  mustard greens, onions, yellow dock, chicory greens, chard, purslane, avocados, apple, cabbage, Calendula, caraway, chickweed, cucumbers, garlic, lemons, lettuce, oranges, pumpkins, rose hips.
  •  Sources of Potassium include Kelp, dulse, and other sea vegetables; herbs such as aloe vera, birch, borage, chamomile, cayenne, cascara sagrada, centaury, chaparral, eyebright, fennel, garlic, onions, Irish moss, lance-leaf plantain, milfoil, mullein, nettle (young leaves), parsley, peppermint, primrose (leaves), rose hips, savory, shepherd's purse, slippery elm, sweet flag, valerian, yarrow; whole grains, potatoes (baked), lentils, beans, sunflower seeds, raw nuts (soaked 24 hours) especially almonds, English walnuts,; fresh raw fruits, especially apricots, avocados, bananas, bilberries, blackberries, cantaloupe, cherries, elderberries, figs, oranges, papaya, peaches, persimmons, watermelon; green leafy vegetables, especially chard, endive, fennel, watercress, broccoli, leaf lettuce, collards, spinach, chicory greens, green amaranth, dandelion greens, coltsfoot, comfrey, mustard greens; carrots, kohlrabi, okra, parsnips, radishes, turnips; celery, artichokes, sweet potatoes (baked), cauliflower, eggplant, sprouts such as alfalfa.
  •  Sources of Sodium include Kelp, Irish moss, dulse, burdock, chaparral, cloves, dandelion, gotu cola, parsley, chard, celery, spinach, dandelion greens, kale, marjoram, marshmallow root, turnips, watercress, white oak bark tea. mustard greens, carrots, romaine lettuce, asparagus, watermelon.
  •  Sources of Sulfur - The body's supply of sulfur comes from sulfur-containing amino acids and from the B vitamins thiamine and biotin. Food sources include garlic, onions, parsley, watercress, radishes, horseradish, turnips, dried beans, cabbage family vegetables, tofu, horsetail, sea vegetables, nuts, legumes, peas, tofu, whole grains, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, turnips, turnip greens, chard, kale, coconut (dried), figs (dried), asparagus, avocados, chervil, coltsfoot, dill, endive, fennel, Irish moss, lance-leaf plantain, mullein, nasturtium (leaves), nettle (young leaves), okra, eyebright, sage, sesame seeds, shave grass, shepherd's purse, silverweed, sunflower seeds, sweet flag, thyme, and white oak bark tea.  


  •  Arsenic sources (naturally occurring in food is non-toxic and beneficial) could include whole grains, starchy vegetables.
  •  Boron sources include whole grains, nuts (soaked 24 hours), fruits, sea vegetables, and leafy vegetables, carrots, apples, pears, grapes,
  •  Sources of Chlorine include kelp and other sea vegetables, watercress, endive, cabbage, chard, kale, asparagus, celery, cucumber, turnip, whole oats, pineapple,
  •  Sources of Cobalt include dandelion, horsetail, juniper berries, parsley, red clover, white oak bark, cabbage, figs, legumes, lettuce,  kelp and other sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Copper include sea vegetables, whole grains, nuts (soaked 24 hours), beans, lentils, avocados, garlic, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, beets, artichokes; nettle, horsetail herb, ; pears, pineapples, and citrus fruits. (Copper is also found in plumbing and cooking pots, which may leach into food and water. However, this is inorganic copper and not properly absorbed and could cause toxicity).
  •  Sources of Chromium include whole grains, dried beans, sea vegetables, and potatoes; licorice root, nettle.
  •  Sources of Cobalt include kelp and other sea vegetables, green leafy vegetables, caraway seeds, dandelion, horsetail herb,
  •  Sources of Flourine include kelp, and other sea vegetables, and gelatin
  •  Sources of Germanium include garlic and onions, aloe vera (from the live plant), comfrey, suma,
  •  Sources of Iodine include bladderwrack (seawrack), dulce, kelp and other sea vegetables, Irish moss, marshmallow root, land plants contain iodine only if they are grown on iodine-rich soil, and could include garlic, Swiss chard, turnip greens, watercress, artichokes, citrus, pears, pineapple.  
  •  Sources of Iron include burdock (root), chamomile, chickweed, dong quai, kelp, marshmallow root, mullein, nettles, paprika, parsley, peppermint, raspberry leaves, rosemary, sarsaparilla, shave grass, silverweed, skullcap, yellow dock; green leafy vegetables, green amaranth,   cabbage, collards, dandelion greens, kale, lamb's-quarters, purslane, watercress, sea vegetables, whole grains, tofu, dries beans, peas, lentils; almonds (soaked 24 hours), black walnuts, Brazil nuts, pecans, sunflower seeds, flaxseed; asparagus, artichokes, avocados, beets, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, leeks, onions, parsnips, potatoes; pumpkins, radishes, tomatoes, turnips; rose hips, apples, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, elderberries, figs (dried), grapes, wild persimmons, strawberries, oranges, peaches, pears.  (Iron can also be obtained by cooking in iron skillets, however this is inorganic iron, and not properly absorbed, and could be a cause of constipation and other health problems).
  •  Sources of Fluorine include whole oats, sunflower seeds, carrots, garlic, green vegetables, almonds, kelp and sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Lithium include kelp, dulse, and sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Manganese include whole grains, kelp and other sea vegetables, nuts and seeds (soaked 24 hours), legumes, garlic, green leafy vegetables, beets, Brussels sprouts; apricots, blue berries, citrus, pineapples, avocadoes.
  •  Sources of Molybdenum include whole grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables. sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Selenium include sea vegetables, whole grains, Brazil nuts, garlic, and most vegetables; horsetail herb.
  •  Sources of silicon include horsetail herb, alfalfa, nettle, kelp, marjoram, flax seeds, sunflower seeds, almonds, whole grains, beets, bell peppers, tofu, green leafy vegetables, onions, parsnips, sea vegetables, apples, grapes, and strawberries.
  •  Sources of Tin include white oak bark, cascara segrada, chaparral.
  •  Sources of Vanadium include vegetable oils, olives, radishes, whole grains, snap beans, dill, sea vegetables.
  •  Sources of Zinc include dulse, Irish moss, kelp and other sea vegetables, green leafy vegetables, miso, alfalfa sprouts, bean sprouts, tofu, legumes, raw nuts, whole grains and seeds (soaked 24 hours, and sprouted), soy lecithin, burdock, chamomile, dandelion, eyebright, hawthorn, marshmallow, onions and garlic, and sarsaparilla. "Zinc in grains and seeds is not easily available for assimilation because it is "locked" by phytin, but becomes "unlocked" ... by sprouting" (Airola, p. 280).

What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are specific necessary nutrients that protect the body from cellular damage by oxidation. "Oxidation is the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen and can be caused by free radicals. An antioxidant can slow down or even stop the chain reaction of oxidation by giving away an electron without changing its stability"
(Theil). "Sources of free radicals include pollutants, drugs, metal ions, radiation, high intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, strenuous exercise, mitochondrial dysfunction and smoking. These may result in damage to membrane lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, which can result in cancer, neurological diseases, lung diseases, diabetes, vascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, aging and eye diseases" [1].

Antioxidants include:

plant sources of vitamins A, C, E, the mineral Selenium (found in Kelp and other sea vegetables), Gamma-Linoleic Acid (GLA) (found in black currant seed oil, borage oil, hemp seed oil, and evening primrose oil), the amino acids L-Cysteine and L- Glutathione, and the enzymes COQ10 and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).
"Cysteine - as a free amino acid - is potentially toxic and is spontaneously catabolized or destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract and blood plasma, and is promptly reduced to the two cysteine molecules upon cell entry"
(; Shah, 2004). However, when it is present as a cysteine-cysteine dipeptide, called cystine, it is more stable than cysteine" (). "Although classified as a non-essential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption
syndromes. Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. This amino acid can be obtained from most high-protein foods, and from red peppers, garlic, onions, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and oats

Glutathione, the body's master antioxidant and detoxifier, is produced in a healthy body from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. "Glutathione levels cannot be increased to a clinically beneficial extent by orally ingesting a single dose of glutathione.
Hence food sources or supplements that increase glutathione must either provide the precursors of glutathione, or enhance its production by some other means"
(Shah, 2004). Consuming foods rich in sulphur-containing amino acids can help boost glutathione levels. Foods that help boost glutathione levels naturally include milk thistle (a powerful antioxidant and supports the liver by preventing the depletion of glutathione), asparagus (a leading source of glutathione), broccoli, avocado, spinach, garlic, turmeric, and selenium from kelp or other sea vegetables.

"Although many people take isolated nutrients as antioxidant supplements, they may not be getting the benefits they hope for. While isolated nutrients have powerful antioxidant abilities in vitro, they rarely have significant antioxidant benefits in vivo. High antioxidant containing foods have proven benefit in humans (in vivo) and high antioxidant effects in vitro as well" (Robert J Thiel, Ph.D., Naturopath).

What are the minimum daily requirements for vitamins and minerals?
Vitamin and mineral requirements can not be accurately determined because  

"Too much of almost any vitamin or mineral can be extremely harmful. When food contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals, the body prevents damage by decreasing the absorption rate. To promote supplements this decreased absorption is presented as a 'defect', that has to be compensated by consuming purchased supplements. Supplements however, can be extremely harmful because contents are highly concentrated, blocking selective uptake. ...

"Absorption rate of minerals and trace elements can easily vary from 5 to 80%, implicating a 16-fold different 'requirement'. Mineral and -trace elements contents can easily vary (even in the same foods !) 10 fold, and vitamin B12 for example even 12-fold. (42) So only considering differing food contents and absorption rates, equal recommendations already will lead to over 100-fold different actual total absorption. Therefore, it isn't even slightly possible to make a tiny bit correct estimate of the amounts you need.

"But how can I know then ?

"You can't, but your body always does. Your body will absorb the nutrients it needs, through varying absorption rate. The only thing you need to do is to offer your body the opportunity, by consuming sufficient natural foods every day.  (

"There is no doubt that an organic whole foods-based diet and a healthy lifestyle are the "best medicine" for those of us trying to survive and keep our families healthy in the toxic soup of 100,000 synthetic chemicals that surround us everyday, polluting our food, water, medicines, homes, and environment. But as we complement our organic whole foods-based diet with herbs and supplements, we need to make sure that these vitamins and botanicals are derived from naturally occurring plant and mineral sources, and that they contain no synthetic chemicals whatsoever" (Ronnie Cummins).



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