Genetic Engineering
by Laurie Lynch, N.D.

The Biotech industry claims that:

  • “So far, there are no documented untoward results from the release of any GM product.”
  • “No adverse toxins have been reported from the millions of acres of GM crops.”
  • “There are no reports of environmental destruction or health hazards from these older or widespread GMOs (GM maize or soy).  It seems unlikely, then, that the mere genetic modification will be problematic in the ‘long term’.” (Alan Mc Hughen, PhD (Senior Research Scientist at the  University of Saskatchewan Canada, Chair of the International Biosafety Committee of the Genetics Society of Canada, and developer of transgenetic plants) Pandora’s Picnic Basket, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 198-200)

Contained in this paper are a large number, but a small percentage, of the documented scientific reports that have been published on the health hazards of genetically engineered foods.  The information is available; it's just being ignored by the biotech companies and their former employees in the FDA, EPA, etc.

Genetically engineered foods have been shown to be a cause of:

  •       allergies

  •       severe chemical sensitivities

  •       arthritis

  •       toxic reactions

  •       blood disorders

  •       respiratory problems

  •       diabetes

  •       Parkinson's

  •       ADHD

  •       birth defects

  •       brain and nervous system damage

  •      cancer

  •   Infections

Included in this report is a long list of references, mostly from peer reviewed journals.

                      The Health Hazards of Genetically Engineering Foods
                    Compiled by Laurie Lynch, ND,

Many people have questions and concerns about genetic engineering biotechnology since there is no real data supporting its safety. So I’d like to attempt to answer some of the most common questions and share with you some examples from existing research on the health hazards of genetically engineering foods.  So maybe we should begin with a brief explanation of genetic engineering and the terminology used.

“Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genes from one individual to another, of the same or different species, usually by means other than cross-breeding.” Genetic engineering or gene splicing is “a process of modifying genetic material by cutting the DNA molecule and rejoining the cut ends so that different bits are now joined together”, somewhat like splicing magnetic tape.  DNA is “a very long chain-like polymer made up of …thousands of simpler units joined end to end”, which differ in the four organic bases they contain.  “The sequence in which the bases occur differs for each DNA molecule which accounts for the specific genetic message.  The bases are like the alphabet that forms words and sentences.  Each DNA molecule is packaged into a chromosome.  Each cell can have one or more chromosome.  “A gene is a stretch of DNA on the chromosome, usually thousands of units in length, which has a defined function” (Ho, p50).  “A genome is the totality of the genetic material of a cell or organism” (Ho, p. 310).  And a vector is a carrier for transferring genes or disease”(or both) (Ho, pp.50. 310, 314).

Although motives of many genetic engineers may be pure and with the best intentions, however, through human error, ignorance, accident, and/or greed, genetically engineering foods has had disastrous results. Research has shown GE foods may be a cause of lowered nutritional value, allergies, toxic effects, birth defects, cancer, antibiotic resistance, and severe bacterial and viral infections (R. Cummins, p. 29).

     According to Dr. Mae-Wan Ho, a British scientist and world famous expert in biotechnology: “Genetic-engineering biotechnology… will spell the end of humanity as we know it, and of the world at large” (Ho, p.1).  The dangers are frightening and can be overwhelming, but please avoid allowing feelings of fear and futility to block out this important information.  There is something you can do about it.

The biotech industry claims that genetically modified foods are substantially equivalent to conventionally grown foods.  So how does the genetic engineering process differ from conventional breeding that makes it dangerous?

 Dr. Ho explained that “genetic engineering differs radically from conventional breeding”; there are significant chemical and compositional differences.

  •      Genetic engineering is a technology designed to transfer genes horizontally between species that do not interbreed (as opposed to transferring genes vertically from parents to offspring) and to make new combinations of genetic material from these different species.

  •       It is designed to break down the species barriers and to overcome the defense mechanisms, which normally degrade or inactivate foreign genes.

  •       For the purpose of manipulating, replacing and transferring genes, genetic engineers use artificial vectors, which are made from viruses and other infectious agents  (HO p. 19).

  •       “The process… involves using special chemical enzymes (most of which are disease causing agents (Mc Hughes, p. 59) as scissors, extracting selected genes from the donor organism (i.e. animals, plants, insects, soil micro-organisms, bacteria, and viruses), synthesizing and making copies of this genetic material, genetic promoters, and vectors (“All of which are parasites that have the ability to invade cells and insert themselves into the cell’s genome, causing genetic damage”)  (Ho, p. 53).  In the process, genes from viruses of all these species are picked up and create new pathogens” (R. Cummins. p.23)

  •       “Genetic engineers… have developed ‘gene guns’ or bacterial vectors that can penetrate the cell walls of target organisms artificially inserting… (them) into another completely different host organism, such as a soy bean, a tomato, or a pig, but they cannot yet precisely control the location where the trait will be inserted…. This random, shotgun-like insertion inevitably causes a disruption of the order and balance of the genes on the host chromosome and can … result in random and unexpected changes in the … functioning of the cells.

  •      “When gene engineers splice a foreign protein into a food product, they most often link it to another gene, called an antibiotic-resistant marker gene (ARM).  By dousing this new genetically engineered creation with an antibiotic, the genetic engineer can tell if the gene-splicing procedure was successful…   if the antibiotic doesn’t kill…” it  (R. Cummins,  p 42).

 Although the biotech spokesmen assure us that genetic engineering is totally safe, “What could go wrong?” is major concern of many people.

“The process of genetic engineering is itself unstable, inexact, and prone to mistakes with potentially fatal consequences…  All too often, researchers end up with transgenetic stillborns, mutants, freaks, and failures, with genetically modified organisms that don’t behave like they’re supposed to,… that can act on their… environments in unpredictable …ways”  (R. Cummins, p. 18).   “Because no gene ever functions in isolation, there will almost always be unexpected and unintended side effects” (Ho, p. 148).   An open letter from 443 world scientists to all governments confirmed that the random insertion of foreign genes “gives rise to unpredictable random effects, including gross abnormalities in animals and unexpected toxins and allergens in food crops.”

 What are some specific examples of GE errors?

  •        A genetically engineered soil microbe accidentally killed wheat plants. (

  •        USDA scientists transplanted human genes, supposedly associated with growth, into pigs to make them grow faster.  However, many of the GM pigs turned out skinny, deformed, excessively hairy, lethargic, apparently impotent, cross-eyed, and  arthritic (The Animal’s Agenda magazine, Volume 15, No.1, p. 27).

  •        “Scientists working to genetically engineer yeast accidentally disrupted its metabolism, resulting in a 40-200 fold increase in… a toxic substance” (R. Cummins, p19)

  •       In the 1980s, a Japanese chemical company began to use genetically modified bacteria to increase the efficiency of L-Tryptophan production.  The amino acid, L-Tryptophan, is a safe, natural, nutritional supplement, used for insomnia and depression effectively for years without ill effects.  However, the genetically engineered brand of L-tryptophan, killed 37 Americans and permanently afflicted more than 5,000 others with a potentially fatal and painful blood disorder (EMS), which caused heart disease, severe muscle pain, memory loss, and paralysis.  The manufacturer suggested that “inadequate purification” was to blame, but it came out in court that it wasn’t. It was discovered that the genetic engineered brand contained several toxic chemicals that were not in the natural tryptophan, which may have been the cause (R. Cummins, p. 30, 31).

   In response to this tragedy the FDA removed not only the GM L-tryptophan from the market but the safe natural brands as well.

Many people question nutritional value of GE foods. The biotech industry claims they improve nutrition. Independent studies show GE foods can decrease nutritional content.      

  •   “Certain GE foods have been shown to have less nutritional value and quality than …non-GE foods… no GE food currently on the market has been shown to be more nutritious or to taste better than non-GE foods” (R. Cummins, pp. 23,25).   Even a FDA scientist admitted that adding a foreign protein to a food “could change the nutritional value of the food” (Louis J. Pribyl, FDA documents) Some varieties of GM foods have been shown to have significant differences in fat and carbohydrate content, anywhere from 12 to 20% drop in protein, certain vitamins, and phytochemicals as compared to non GM varieties.

  •     “GM maize show significant differences in fat and carbohydrate content, compared with non-GM maize” (A. Pusztai, Internet).     Roundup Ready soybeans showed as much as a 20% drop in certain phytochemicals (The Campaign to Label Genetically Engineered Foods, Internet), (study by Dr. Marc Lappe,  Journal of Medicinal Food, 1999)

  •   “According to Monsanto's own tests, Roundup Ready soybeans contain 29'% less of the brain nutrient choline, and 27% more trypsin inhibitor ( a potential allergen that interferes with protein digestion),  … lower levels of phenylalanine, an essential amino acid…. And levels of lectins, allergens, are nearly double in the transgenic variety” (J. Robbins, Internet).

  •    “Cows ingesting GE soybeans have exhibited higher levels of fat in their milk” (R. Cummins, p.47).

  •   Some GE potatoes showed a 20% drop in protein quality, lower disease-fighting capabilities, and nutrition (R. Cummins p33).

  •    A variety of GM tomato had about 15% less vitamin C (J. Doyle, p. 149)).

  •   “Cows ingesting GE soybeans have exhibited higher levels of fat in their milk (R. Cummins, p.47).

  •   Milk from cows injected with rBGH contains higher levels of pus, bacteria, and fat (R. Cummins, p.47).

  •   GM foods offer no real benefits to the consumer or to the farmer.  “The overwhelming majority of GE crops … have been genetically altered to survive being sprayed with … highly toxic … herbicides, to produce their own insecticides, or to have an increased shelf life (R. Cummins, p. 24).

    Most people don’t know which foods have been genetically modified since they refuse to label them. 
    I think there are around 90 GM foods and animal feeds on the market, but the list is growing so rapidly.  The most common GM foods include tobacco, tomatoes, soybeans, corn, canola oil, cotton seed oil, potatoes, papaya, crookneck yellow squash, sugar beets, dairy products, alfalfa, aspartame (NutraSweet), baker’s and Brewer’s yeast, riboflavin (vitamin B2), Vitamin C, etc.  Derivatives of these products can be found in most processed foods and restaurant foods. There is talk that GM rice, wheat, cucumbers, sugar, walnuts, strawberries, apples, salmon and farm raised fish will soon be on the market, if not already.  That’s just about every thing!      

The biotech industry is genetically modifying rice to contain vitamin A to prevent blindness in third world countries.  Many people think that is a good thing, but is it?
It would be better to eat fresh, raw fruits, vegetables, and edible herbs for their beta-carotene content, such as dandelion greens, or using the herb, eyebright to aid vision.  Eating nutrient rich, whole grain rice would be an improvement, instead of the de-natured, nutrient poor white rice introduced by the US.
According to Molecular geneticist, Professor Bevan Moseley, GM vitamin enriched rice and other new functional foods and neutraceuticals, “will pose even greater health risks because of the increased complexity of the gene constructs” (letter from 443 world scientists)

Could GMOs cause allergies? Some in the biotech industry claim that GM foods remove allergens from foods.
Genetically modified foods can cause severe, even fatal allergic reactions!  Most allergies, whether to cats, dust, pollen, smoke, or chemicals, have food allergies or indigestion as an underlying cause. The cat or pollen is not the cause, only the trigger.

According to FDA scientists, “We cannot assume that all gene products, particularly those encoded by genes from non-food sources, will be digestible.  … If the genetically engineered protein appears to be resistant to digestion, this could increase concern about immunologic or allergenic potential” (FDA documents) "The cells in the GMO can begin to manufacture proteins… in much higher levels,…  in incorrect quantities or at the wrong times,… or they may contain entirely new foreign proteins, bacteria, or viral constructs that humans have never eaten before… some of which are toxic… Proteins are what cause allergic reactions, and virtually every gene transfer in crops results in some protein production.  Proteins will be coming into food crops not just from known sources of food allergens, like peanuts, shellfish, and dairy, but from plants of all kinds, bacteria and viruses, whose potential allergenicity is … unknown’” (R. Cummins, p. 21, 37)   The biotech proponents suggest that the foreign proteins in the genetically modified foods are good for you. They lump all kinds of proteins into one class- protein, the essential building block of life.  But they fail to explain that there are many different kinds of proteins, the right proteins in the right balance are essential for life and the wrong proteins or in the wrong balance can be fatal, or cause varying harmful side effects. Remember, Mad Cow Disease was said to be caused by a reaction to a foreign protein!

GM foods can and do cause "Immunological reactions in humans… as evidenced by the autoimmune disease SLE", where "antibodies are produced against DNA fragments and nucleoprotein released from dying cells. This results in a Type III Immune Mediated Hypersensitivity Reaction. …Immune complex glomerulonephritis is another condition associated with the production of antibodies against DNA and DNA-protein etc. In patients with SLE, immune complex deposits containing antibodies to… DNA have been detected in the kidney tissue" (Sharyn Martin, PhD, IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO DNA AND RNA, PSRAST).

“Although most of us know what foods trigger our …allergies and how to avoid them… if genes from another organism can be inserted into a food plant, we won’t be able to recognize those allergy-causing foods. Gene foods cannot be tested for allergenicity.” because allergic reactions depend on previous exposure (HO p146).

  • GM Starlink and other engineered corn have been shown to be a cause of allergy in numerous people. .  17 people reported allergic reactions after eating corn products to the Center for Disease Control and Protection; one had hives in his throat so severe that he couldn't breathe. “A special protein in the corn… breaks down slowly in the digestive system,…  (and if not properly digested) might induce allergic reactions” (P. Brasher, Dateline). 
  • GM soybeans had a significant increase in a known allergen (trypson inhibitor) (A. Pusztai, Internet).  
  • In 1998, when the US greatly increased the imports of genetically modified soybeans to Britain, British scientists “…reported  …an unusual 50% increase in soy allergies (Ronnie Cummins). 
  • Eating honey could cause allergic reactions.  A UK University study showed that transgenetic pollen proteins could remain active in honey for several weeks.  (Nottingham, p. 92).
  • A 1999 study suggests that crop pickers and handlers exposed to Bt spray can develop allergies to it, so people eating Bt-containing plants might do as well.” (Yount, p. 14, 15).

        So “Gene-spliced foods could set off life-threatening food allergies or even poison you” (R. Cummins, p. 21).

The biotech spokesmen say the GMOs are totally safe, how can they poison people?
Herbicides and pesticides are incorporated into the plant structure, and into the system of anyone that eats them, or eats animals that have eaten them, even at very low doses.  And these chemicals accumulate and combine with other chemicals to create all kinds of toxic substances.

  • The Bt-toxin, engineered into many transgenetic crops in excessive amounts to make them resist insect pests, has been shown to cause fatal lung infections in mice (Trewavas, Nature, 1999, p. 231-2).
  •  Evidence showed that Bt-engineered foods damaged the long intestine, but this evidence was ignored by US and Canadian regulators”  (Prof. J. Cummins, Internet).
  • A study with a GM tomato expressing Bt toxin gene demonstrated binding of Bt toxin to the caecum/colon from humans and rhesus monkeys (Nester, Internet).
  • Bt-engineered potato plants were reported to have caused “brain, liver, and immune system damage and possible cancer rate increases in rats”  (Prof. J. Cummins, Internet).

Glufosinate, bromoxynil, and glyphosate, the active ingredients in a number of herbicides, ( sprayed on GM foods) are rendered even more toxic when the active ingredients are combined with the other “inert” ingredients in the herbicides  (Herbicide Factsheet).   

  • Glufosinate, (a neurotoxin) and the other ingredients used with it have been shown to cause “death of nerve cells in the brain” (T. Fujii, pp. 524-528).   Glufosinate formulations can be 2.5 times more toxic than glufosinate alone, when absorbed through the skin.
  •  “Glyphosate-containing products (Roundup) are acutely toxic to animals, including humans” (Herbicide Factsheet, p. 3)Symptoms could include convulsions, eye and skin irritation and/or burning, diarrhea, elevated blood pressure, heart palpitations, headaches, inflammation of the stomach lining, laryngitis, low blood pressure, nausea, numbness, salivary gland lesions, vomiting, and/or wheezing. “Breathing glyphosate can irritate the nose and throat” Long-term effects could include liver and kidney damage.  “High exposure can cause irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).  This can cause death” (Healthy House, p.2)
  •  “Some Roundup products are “extremely destructive to tissues of the mucus membranes and upper respiratory tract” (Herbicide Factsheet, p. 3-7).
  •   In rats, Roundup decreased the activity of two detoxification enzymes in the liver and an intestinal enzyme, and “.. causes genetic damage in laboratory animals and in human blood cells” (Herbicide Factsheet, p. 3-7).
  • "Rapid and lethal intoxication leading to death in minutes in a child and young woman occurred with Touchdown, the trimesium salt of glyphosate" (Sorensen FW, Gregersen M., pp. 735-7; M. Hooper).  
  • The World Health Organization found that cooked vegetables treated with herbicides (Roundup) had significant levels of Acrylamide, a potent nerve toxin that is released by heat and light (I-SIS Report, Internet).
  • "Parkinsonism developed one month after a 54-year old man accidentally sprayed himself with glyphosate . It remains and has required treatment with the standard drugs to control it. It is a permanent condition. This is the most disturbing report of toxicity associated with this compound. The early effects following this accident were skin lesions that developed with in 6 hours" (Barbosa ER, Da Costa L, Bachesshi LA, Scaff M, Leite CC. pp. 565-8;  M. Hooper).

 If these chemicals are toxic and cause health problems, why do the EPA and FDA allow them on the market?

Many of the people in the FDA and EPA are former biotech employees, some even have the job of approving their own research.  For a list of names of government officials that have worked for biotech companies, and vise versa, you can visit this website.

  •  “As spraying of the glyphosate containing herbicide, Roundup, began to increase, (guess what the EPA did!)  EPA officials raised the legally acceptable glyphosate intake levels to…300 times the “acceptable daily intake “ level recommended by the World Health Organization, and “ten times the level at which birth and reproductive abnormalities have been observed” (R. Cummins, p.45).
  •   “The first GM crop to be commercialized- the Flavr Savr tomato- did not pass the required toxicological tests.  Since then, no comprehensive scientific safety testing had been done” in the US. (letter from world scientists). 
  •      The FDA’s own scientists warned that,  “…genetically modified plants could also contain unexpected high concentrations of plant toxicants…. (And) plant toxicant genes, which are normally inactive, could…(become active), and  …normally active genes could become inactive..  as a result of insertion of the new genetic material.… all of these plant toxicants could … be harmful to man …At this time it is unlikely that … analysis can reasonably detect or predict all possible changes in toxicant levels or the development of new toxic metabolites as a result of genetic modification”  (Key FDA Documents, Alliance for Bio-Integrity).  These and other warnings by FDA scientists were ignored and kept secret by the FDA.
  •     rBGH increases bovine serum protein levels in treated cows and along with several other chemicals and mastitis bacteria from "milk have been implicated in the promotion of childhood diabetes... This finding was ignored by NIH and FDA reviews. The Governor of Wisconsin has been heavily lobbied by Monsanto and biotechnologists whose grants are viewed at risk if the health risks are revealed…. Meanwhile 70% of large dairies use rBGH in Wisconsin; none have facilities for separation of rBGH milk from natural milk."  This accounts for "30% of the USA dairy products"   (W. von Meyer).

What about biomedicine? This is another common question. Would GMOs be safe for medicinal purposes?
Dr. Ho said, “the ‘cures’ are literally deadly.  The toll from ‘gene therapy’ trials so far is at least 6 deaths and more than 650 adverse events”
(Open Letter to New Zealand Royal Commission, from Dr. Mae-Wan Ho).   “Gene therapy vectors and naked DNA vaccines can cause acute toxic shock reactions… trigger autoimmune reactions,… and severe delayed immunological reactions” (Ho, Ryan, Cummins, Traavik, 50).

  •   In 1998 -1999, six deaths occurred during clinical trials of gene therapy (Ho, Ryan, Cummins, Traavik, 50).
  •   “Stem cells from human fetuses transplanted into the brain of 5 Parkinson’s patients turned into an irredeemable nightmare because the cells grew uncontrollably” (Ho, NZ Letter).
  •    In the 1980s scientists engineered sheep to create human growth hormone in their blood to be used medicinally.  Some human patients have experienced side effects such as the development of antibodies to growth hormones, indicating the long-term effects could be to prevent future growth.  Other experienced side effects include edema, pain, arthralgia, rhinitis, gastritis, flu symptoms, hypertension, and leukemia (PDR, pp. 989-992).  
  •   Pigs and E. Coli were engineered to create human insulin.  My diabetic clients reported more harmful side effects, when using GE human insulin than when they used other forms of insulin, side effects such as severe hypoglycemia and allergic reactions, as well as further pancreatic atrophy.  Other experienced side effects include edema, pain, arthralgia, rhinitis, gastritis, flu symptoms, hypertension, and leukemia. (PDR, p. 1464)  
  •   “Eight Canadians had died after taking (GM) synthetic insulin as of January, 2001. Another 465 people had adverse reactions. . In the United States, there have been 92 reported deaths, and 4,000 adverse reactions reported by diabetics using synthetic insulin (Norfolk Genetic Information Network).
  •    The GM blood clotter aprotinin can cause pancreatic disease in animals and perhaps humans (
  •   An AIDS vaccine created from a genetically modified simian immunodeficiency virus (was) found to cause AIDS in infant and adult macaques” (Kimbrell, Internet).

 The potential for birth defects is a common concern. What is the likelihood?
According to Dr. Ho, “The insertion of viral DNA into the cell’s genome can create all manner of genetic disturbances”
(Ho, p. 21).  Certain viruses have long been known to cause birth defects, such as the infantile blindness caused by the measles virus in a pregnant woman.  “Ingested DNA from a bacterial virus or from a plasmoid transgene is incorporated in chromosomes and is passed from mother to fetus” (Shubert et al, 1998)

Birth defects could also be caused by plant toxicants, by poisonous chemicals inherent in the gene splicing process, and by herbicides on and incorporated in the cells of the GMO, all of which combine and accumulate in the system of a pregnant woman and are passed through the placenta to the unborn child. .  These chemicals can interfere with enzymes or hormones in the body.  Disruption of hormones in a pregnant woman’s body could be profoundly damaging to her offspring” (Luoma, J. p. 52)

  • ·        The herbicide chemical bromoxynil has been linked with spinal and skull defects, reduced fetal weight, and developmental disorders in human fetuses (Lappe, pp. 41-47).

  • ·        And Glufosinate has been linked to birth defects, damage in human blood cells, learning disabilities, and abnormal behavior in children” (R. Cummins, p. 46).

  • ·        Studies indicate that Roundup disrupts hormones and is associated with birth defects in humans (Rachel's Environment and Health News, issue 751, Sept. 5, 2002).  

  • ·        Roundup was linked to a 3-fold increase in attention deficit disorders  (EHP Supplement 3, Vol. 110 June 2002, pgs. 441-449).

      GMOs could cause GENETIC DAMAGE that may not be obvious in the first generation but could increase in severity in future generations! Mammalian experts have stated that it takes at least four generations to know what the effect of a novel food will be.

Can GMOs be cancerous?
According to Dr. Ho, “The insertion of viral DNA … can create… CANCER… The insertion of foreign genes into a host genome is random and has long been known to have many harmful and fatal effects, including cancer; and this is borne out by the low success rate in creating desired transgenic organisms"
(Ho, pp. 21,51) .

  •  The vector most widely used in plant genetic engineering is derived from a plasmid that induces tumours in plants… " In animals, vectors are constructed from retroviruses, causing cancers and other diseases ( Ho, pp. 21,51) And the letter from world scientists confirms that horizontal gene transfer could cause “harmful mutations which may lead to cancer”.
  •  “A vector now used in fish… causes leukemia in mice but can infect all mammalian cells.   It causes… sarcomas in domestic fowl and… oral lesions in cattle, horses, pigs, and humans” (Ho, p. 51, & Lin et al, pp. 666-9).
  •  Several laboratory studies on glyphosate exposed rats found an increase in thyroid cancer, hairy cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, as well as kidney, liver, pancreas, and testicular tumors (Herbicide Factsheet, p. 6; Hardell and Eriksson).
  •  The toxic weed killer bromoxynil, which even the EPA classifies as a ‘possible human carcinogen’ sprayed in heavy doses on herbicide-resistant GE cotton plants (and ending up in cotton seed and vegetable oils), has been linked with liver tumors  (Lappe, pp. 41-47),
  •  Cooking GE vegetables sprayed with herbicides (Roundup) releases significant levels of Acrylamide that can cause cancer (I-SIS Report, Internet).
  •  GE growth hormone in milk and some animal products such as chicken has been linked to leukemia  (PDR, pp. 989-992)Monsanto/FDA documents showed damage to laboratory rats fed dosages of rBGH.  Significant infiltration of rBGH into the prostate of the rats as well as thyroid cysts indicated potential cancer hazards from the drug” (R. Cummins, p. 31)Irregardless, Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone was approved by the FDA for injection “into dairy cows to force them to produce… more milk, even though scientists warned that significantly higher levels of a potent chemical hormone, (Insulin-like Growth Factor,) in the milk …of injected cows, could pose serious hazards for human breast, prostate, colon, and various childhood cancers.  rBGH milk has (high levels of IGF-1, ) up to ten times the levels in natural milk and over ten times more potent.  (IGF-1) resists pasteurization and digestion … and is well absorbed across the intestinal wall” (R. Cummins, p. 39)
  •  rbGH has been linked to an average 1750% surge in adult lymphatic cancer in 1995. The FDA published a study (SCIENCE, August 24, 1990) showing that "Lab animals treated with rbGH developed lymphatic abnormalities."  This same hormone causing changes in lab animals was introduced into America's food supply in 1994 (U.S. Census Bureau; .Robert Cohen)

 “No other industrialized country has legalized use of rBGH, but it continues to be injected into…(around 500,000) U.S. dairy cows” (R. Cummins, p. 41) Are your children drinking this cancer-causing milk?

  Another common question:  Can all those antibiotics cause antibiotic resistance and immune system damage?
Most GM foods carry antibiotic resistant marker genes and are doused with antibiotics. Frequent exposure to antibiotics can cause bacteria to develop antibiotic resistance.  They kill the good bacteria that keep fungus under control.  When fungus grows out of control, the immune system becomes damaged.

  •    The use of rBGH contributes to “increased antibiotic residues in the milk, resulting from higher rates of udder infections” (R. Cummins, p. 41).

  •   “…multi-drug antibiotic resistance is already endemic in many UK hospitals. The transgenic tomatoes currently marketed here and in the US both carry genes for kanamycin resistance. Kanamycin is widely used to treat tuberculosis which is coming back all over the world(Ho,
  •  Dangerous bacteria, (including staph, ones that cause toxic shock syndrome, ones causing blood poisoning and wound infections, pneumonia, and TB) “have become invulnerable to all known antibiotics… By the nineties, ‘superstrains‘ (of E.coli) resistant to multiple antibiotics were isolated (Ho, p. 178).

 Since GM foods are spliced with infectious agents, couldn’t that cause infections in humans that can’t be treated with antibiotics?
“ARM genes employed in gene-spliced foods or animal feeds may… combine with …pre-existing germs… and give rise to deadly new strains of antibiotic resistant ‘super bugs’ “…  transgenetic DNA can recombine with bacteria in the…mouth and throat for up to an hour after being ingested”
(R. Cumminsp. 43).  “Bacteria reproduce by cell division and could produce populations of billions in little more than a day… .antibiotic resistant genes spread … by contact between humans… and from bacteria inhabiting the gut of farm animals to those in humans (Ho, p 18)

“According to a World Health Organization report, at least thirty new diseases, including AIDS, Ebola, and Hepatitis C, have emerged over the past twenty years, while old infectious diseases, such as TB, cholera, malaria, and diphtheria, are coming back … (and) are becoming completely … resistant to… antibiotics… Geneticists have now linked the emergence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance to horizontal gene transfer! and have shown “…that the presence of antibiotics … increases the frequency of horizontal gene transfer 10 to 10,000-fold” (Ho, p19).

“Horizontal gene transfer and subsequent genetic recombination generated the bacterial strains responsible for the cholera outbreak in India in 1992, the Streptococcus epidemic in … Scotland, in 1993, and the more recent E. coli 0157 …outbreaks in Scotland” (Ho, p 18)  And “new lethal viruses continue to be created in GE labs (Ho, NZ ).

What studies have been done that show a connection between GM foods and infections?

  • The first study was conducted by Dr. Pusztai and a team of researchers at the Rowett Institute in Scotland.  This helped to confirm the dangers of horizontal gene transfer.  They used three groups of rats. One group was fed genetically modified potatoes, spliced with lectin DNA from the snowdrop plant and a commonly used viral promoter from the cauliflower Mosaic Virus, another group was fed conventional potatoes, and a third group was fed potatoes with the lectin added with an eyedropper.   “Beside significant compositional differences, Pusztai found that after only ten days the gene-spliced potatoes damaged the vital organs and immune systems of the lab rats.  But rats fed conventional potatoes, and rats fed conventional potatoes with lectin added mechanically… were unharmed.”  Dr. Pusztai and Dr. Ewen, a Scottish pathologist concluded “…that damage to the rats intestines and stomach linings-apparently a severe viral infection-most likely was caused by…a promoter derived from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus” (R. Cummins p33; S Ewen and A. Pusztai, pp. 1353- 1354).  Dr. Ho and others warn that ‘The use of the Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter has the potential to reactivate dormant viruses or create new viruses…, and it is gene-spliced…into nearly all genetically engineered foods” (R. Cummins, pp. 33,34).
  • A related paper by researchers at the Scottish Crop Research Institute showed that snow drop lectin binds to human white blood cells  (Fenton et. al.,1999J. Cummins).
  • Scientific studies have demonstrated that “all genetically engineered crops contain bacterial DNA…that stimulates the immune system to start a sequence of reactions leading to inflammation… arthritis, and lymphoma (a malignant blood disease)” (PRAST, Internet)
  • Researchers show that ingested virus genes from GM foods may be taken up by body cells, the blood serum and blood cells (R. Schubbert, et al, pp. 962-966 Proc., Natl. Acad.Sci; New Scientist, 4;  Doerfler et al, Trends in Biotechnology. 15, 297-301, 1997).

 So, as all this information indicates, to safeguard our family’s health, and their lives, and our basic freedoms guaranteed by our constitution, we must act to bring about a total ban on all genetic engineering! We can no longer allow ourselves to be unknowing guinea pigs for the biotech industry. We can no longer hide our heads in the sand like apathetic ostriches.  We must do what ever we can to stop this, to protect our children from these horrors.  And there is a lot we can do. Your action can make a difference!

What you can do about it:

  •   You could contact your state senators and representatives and ask them to take a stand against GMOs in your state.
  •    Vote for political candidates that support a ban or moratorium on genetically engineered food.
  •     Educate everyone you talk to about the hazards of GMOs.  Send E-mails to everyone.
  •    Check your stocks and mutual funds.  Think about not investing in agricultural biotechnology.
  •  Ask your local grocery stores to provide more organic foods and dairy products free of rBGH.  Shop for products like the Whole Foods Market brand.
  • ·        Buy organic produce whenever possible.  If organic is not available where you are, consider forming an organic buying club in your area. You vote with your dollars.  If nobody buys GM foods the producers will go out of business.

  • ·        Consider getting your produce directly from growers at farmers markets.  Make sure they are using organic or natural seeds like Johnny’s Select Seeds, Harris, or Territorial (among others).

  • ·        Buy foods with the GMO Free label and boycott companies that are known to use GE ingredients.

  • ·        Grow your own organic foods.

  • ·        Get a membership in an organic CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) farm.  Write to

  • ·        Contact food producing companies.  Ask if they are refusing to use genetically modified ingredients.   If not, ask them to do so or you will boycott all their products until they come out with an official statement that they are.

  • You could follow Vermont's example by sending representatives to town meetings in your town and across the state.  The residents of 28 Vermont towns have voted overwhelmingly in opposition to genetically engineered food and crops at their annual town meetings.  Most of the resolutions included language stating that genetically engineered (GE) foods have been shown to cause long-term damage to the environment, the integrity of rural, family farm economies and can have serious impacts on human health.  Most resolutions called upon state legislators and the Vermont congressional delegation to support labeling of GE foods and seeds, as well as a moratorium on the growing of GE crops.  In addition, eight towns took steps toward ending the use of engineered crops within their towns, whether by declaring a town moratorium or urging that the planting of GE seeds be actively discouraged within the town. Local moratoria and other such measures were passed in Westfield, Jamaica, Greensboro, Calais, Marshfield, Ripton, Walden, and Charlotte. 

"The more people know about genetically engineered food, the more they oppose it, but so far corporate lobbyists have prevented the state and federal governments from acting," Albert-Knopp said.  "In our town meetings, however, people's real concerns can take precedence over special interests."  "It's about the freedom to govern ourselves," said Ben Grosscup, who spoke in favor of Marshfield's resolution.  "The biotechnology industry, the federal government and international bodies like the World Trade Organization are trying to make us forget that we can have that kind of freedom."  Farms will be lost, which will hurt the property tax base.  This problem affects everybody.  Beside, the idea that Monsanto can sue farmers for growing crops that were contaminated with their own GE pollen-and win-is appalling." (Contact: ISE Biotechnology Project or 802-454-7138, September, 2000)

  • Get the book “Genetically Engineered Food, A Self-Defense Guide for Consumers” by Ronnie Cummins and Ben Lilliston.

  •   Learn more about what is happening to your food from these web sites:

Organic Consumers Association

Mothers for Natural Law

Center for Food Safety

Holding Corporations Accountable

Pesticide Action Network



Green Peace


The Institute of Science In Society


Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology


  •  You can also look for products from companies that don't use genetically modified ingredients by visiting Green Peace,   

    And remember the old saying, “If you think you’re too small to make a difference, just try sleeping in a room with a mosquito.

 References and Recommended Readings:

Journal Articles

1.   Susana M. Martin-Orue, Trudy Netherwood, Harry J. Gilbert, John C Mathers (Human Nutrition Research Center, Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, University of New Castle upon Tyre, UK), Anthony G. O’Donnell (Dept. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of New Castle upon Tyre, UK), Joaquin Arino (Dept. de Bioquimica I Biologia Molecular & Serveide Sequenciacio de DNA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain), Degradation of transgenitic DNA British Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 87, 533-542

2   Stanley W.B. Ewen, PhD, (Dept. of Pathology, University of Aberdeen, UK), and Arpad Pusztai, PhD, (Rowette Institute, UK), “Effect of Diets Containing Genetically form genetically modified soya and maize in human intestinal simulations, Modified Potatoes Expressing GALANTHUSNIVALIS Lectin on Rat’s Small Intestine,” THE LANCET Vol. 354, No. 9167  (Octobet 16, 1999 , pp. 1353- 1354*    

3.   Dr. Lennart Hardell and Dr. Mikael Eriksson , (Swedish oncologists), Journal of American Cancer Society, 15 March 1999

4.   Stephen G. Pueppke, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Agricultural Biotechnology and Plant Improvement, American Behavioral Scientist, April 2001, Vol. 44

5.   Mae-Wan Ho  (Biology Department, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK), Hartmut Meyer   (Biodiversity,Forum Environment and Development,Germany), Joe Cummins (Professor Emeritus of Genetics,University of Western Ontario, Canada,),   The Biotechnology Bubble, The Ecologist 28(3), 146-153.

6.   B. Dixon, The Paradoxes of Genetically Modified Foods, BMJ 1999; 318:547-8 )27 February)

7.   J. Godfrey, Do Genetically Modified Foods Affect Human Health? Lancet 2000; 355:414

8.   Anthony.J. Trewavas,  PhD. (Molecular Signaling Group, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biolog, UK, Much Food, Many Problems, Nature 1999; 302; 231-32

9.   ------------------- How Nature Itself Used Genetic Modification, Nature, 2000; 405:640

10.   --------------------Leaver CJ, Conventional Crops are the Test of GM Prejudices, Nature 1999, 401:640

11.  ---------------------"Toxins and genetically modified food", The Lancet, Vol. 355, No. 9207. p. 931-934
 March 2000

12.  A.M. Garcia., FG Benavides, T Fletcher, E Orts, Paternal Exposure to Pesticides and Congenital Malformations, Scandinavian Journal of Work-Related and Environmental Health, 1998, 24, pp. 473-80.

13.   Dr. Samuel Epstein, The Ecologist, Sept.-Oct. 1998, Britain

14.   Marc Lappe, Journal of Medicinal Food, 1999

15.   Inose T and Kousaku M, Enhanced accumulation of toxic compounds in yeast cells having high glycolytic activity: a case study on the safety of genetically engineered yeast, 1995, International Journal Food Science Technology, 30, pp. 141-146

16.   William H. R. Langridge, Edible Vaccines, Scientific American, 00368733, Sept. 2000, Vol. 283, Issue 3

17.   Brett Chase, Government Report on Biotech Corn Disputed by Some Who Got Sick, Top Financial News, Jun 2001

18.   R. Schubbert, D. Renz, B. Schmitz, and W. Doerfler.Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. USA 94, 961-966, 1997;  ; W. Doerfler, R. Schubbert, H. Heller, C. Kämmer, K. Hilger-Eversheim, M. Knoblauch, and R. Remus. Integration of foreign DNA in mammalian systems and its consequences. Review. Trends in Biotechnology. 15, 297-301, 1997;. New Scientist, 4 Jan 1997

19.   Padgette SR, Taylor NB, Nida DL, et al, "The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans," Journal of Nutrition 126(3):702-16, 1996 March

20.  Mayeno AN and Gleich GL, Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and trytophan production: a cautionary tale,  (1994) Trends in Biotechnology 12: 346-352
21.   Michael Antoniou, MA (Oxon.), PhD (senior lecturer in molecular pathology and head a research group at one of London's leading teaching hospitals), Genetic Pollution, Nutritional Therapy Today, Vol. 6, No. 4, pages 8-11, December 1996
22.  .Robert Cohen, LYMPHATIC CANCER PLAGUE, SCIENCE, August 24, 1990; U.S. Census Bureau;   

23.   Fujii, T., Transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to chemicals on the functional development of the brain in the offspring., Cancer Causes and Control, 1997, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 524-528.

24   TV Golovkina, AB Jaffee, SR Ross, Co-expression of exogenous and endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus RNA in vivo results in viral recombination and broadens the viral host range, Journal of Virology, 1994, 68, pp. 5019-26

25  Takahashi H, Toya T, Matsumiya N, Koyama K., A case of transient diabetes insipidus associated with poisoning by a herbicide containing glufosinate, J Clin Toxicol, 2000, 38, 153-6.

26.   Nakaki T, Mishima A, Suzuki E, Shintani F, Fujii T., Glufosinate ammonium stimulates nitric oxide production through N-methyl D-aspartate receptors in rat cerebellum, Neuroscientific Letters, 2000, 290, 209-12

27.   Matsumara N, Takeuchi C, Hishikawa K, Fujii T, Nakaki T., Glufosinate ammonium induces convulsion through N-methyl -D- aspartate receptors in mice, Neuroscientific Letters, 2001, 304, 123-5.

28 . Koyama K, KoyamaK, Goto K., Cardiovascular effects of a herbicide containing glufosinate and a surfactant: in vitro and in vivo analyses in rats, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 1997, 145, 409-14.

29.  Sorensen FW, Gregersen M., Rapid lethal intoxication caused by the herbicide glyphosate-trimesium (Touchdown), Hum Exp Toxicol 1999, 18, 735-7.

30.   Barbosa ER, Da Costa L, Bachesshi LA, Scaff M, Leite CC., Parkinsonism after glycine-derivate exposure, Mov Disord 2001, 116, 565-8.

31.   Pushnoy LA, Avnon Ls, Carel RS., Herbicide (Roundup) pneumonitis, Chest, 1998, 114, 1769-71.

32.   Kale PG, Petty BT Jr, Walker S, Ford JB, Dehkordi N, Tarasia S, Tasie BO, Kale R, Sohni YR., Mutagenicity testing of nine herbicides and pesticides currently used in agriculture, Environ mol Mutagen, 1995, 45, 148-53.

33.   Lee HL, Chen KW, Chi CH, Huang JJ, Tsai LM., Clinical presentations and prognostic factors of a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide intoxication: a review of 131 cases, Acad emerg Med 2000, 8, 906-10.

34.   T. Jewell, Health and Environmental Effects of Glufosinate, Pesticides News No.42, December 1998, p20-21.

35.   L R B Mann, PhD.  (biochemist, served on the Toxic Substances Board advising successive New Zealand ministers of health on poisons).  D Straton, MD.  & W E Crist, The Thalidomide of Genetic Engineering, revised June 2000 from the GE issue of 'Soil & Health (NZ)' Aug '99:

36.   Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA, Thomas LA and Bush RK, Identification of brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans,  (1996) The New England Journal of Medicine 334: 688-692
37.   Nestle M , Allergies in Transgenic foods-questions of policy, (1996) The New England Journal of Medicine, 334: 726 727
38.   Fuchs RL and Astwood JD, Allergenicity assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants,  Food Technology February 1996: 83-88
39.   Deng G, Nilsson A, Verdrengh M, Collins L, Tarkowski A, "intra-articularly located bacteria containging CpG motifs induces arthritis", 1999, Nature Medicine, 5,702-6

40.   Donnelly J,Ulmer U,Shiver J and Lui M., "DNA Vaccines"1997, Annu Rev Immunol, 15,617-48

41.   Einspanier R, Klotz A, Kraft J et al, The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals: a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material,, European Food Research and Technology Abstract, Volume 212, Issue 2, 2001, pp 129-134

42.   Gorecki D and Simons J , The dangers of DNA vaccination, 1999, Nature Medicine, pp. 5,126

43.   Guunathan S, Klinman D and Seder R., DNA Vaccines, 2000, Annu Rev. Immunol, 18, pp.927-74

44.   Hemmi H,Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Kaisho T, Sato S, Sanjo H, Matsumoto M, Hoshino K, Wagner H, Takeda K, Akira,S., A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA, 2000, Nature, 408, pp. 740 - 745

45.   Hsu S, Chung S, Robertson D, Ralph L, Chelvarajan R, Bondada S., CpG oligodeoxynucleotides rescue BKS-2 immature B cell lymphoma from anti-Ig-M-mediated growth inhibition by up-regulating of egr-1, International Immunology, 1999, 19996, pp. 871-9

46.   Jain V and Mekalanos J., Use of lambda phage S and R gene products in an inducible lysis system from Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica servovar Typhimurium-Based vaccine delivery systems, 2000, Infection and Immunity, 68, pp. 986-9

47.   Manders P and Thomas R., Immunology of DNA vaccines: CpG motifs and antigen presentation, Inflamm Res, 49, pp. 199-205

48.   Molling K., Naked DNA for vaccine or therapy, 1997, JMolMed, 75, pp. 242-6

49.   Schubbert R, Hohlweg U, Renz D and Doerfler W., On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the fetus" 1998, Mol Gen Genet, 259, pp. 569-576

50.    Cox, C., Herbicide Fact Sheet: Glufosinate, Journal of Pesticide Reform, North West Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Oregan, US, 1996.
51   Watanabe, T.,  Apoptosis induced by glufosinate ammonium in the neuroepithelium of developing mouse embryos in culture,. Neuroscientific Letters, 1997, Vol. 222, No. 1, pp.17-20.
52.  Watanabe, T. and T. Iwase, Development and dymorphogenic effects of glufosinate ammonium on mouse embryos in culture. Teratogenesis carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, 1996, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 287-299.  53.

53.   Baer et al, Dairy Science, vol. 72, no. 6, 1989;  FDA Documents, (cg Table 25 showing statistically significant protein quantities); Sonenberg, The direct adverse effect of fragments of bovine growth hormone in humans, Journal of Metabolism, 14:1189. 1965.

54.   Barry Commoner, PhD. (senior scientist at the Center for the Biology of Natural Systems at Queens College, City University, NY, and director of the Critical Genetics Project), UNRAVELING THE DNA MYTH, Harper’s Magazine, Feb. 2002

55.   The Animal’s Agenda Magazine, Volume 15, No.1

56.   Jon R. Luoma, Pandora’s Pantry, Mother Jones, Jan/Feb2000, Vol. 25, Issue 1, p. 52

57.   Eugene W. Nester, editor, University of Washington, Seattle, WA,  , MICROBIOLOGY: GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF HeLa CELLS BY AGROBACTERIUM, Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences. 2000
58.     R. Schubbert, D. Renze, B. Schmitz, W. Doertfler,  Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94; pp. 961-66

59.   Michael Hansen, Ph.D. Consumer Policy Institute/Consumers Union, Possible Human Health Hazards of Genetically Engineered Bt Crops, Comments on the human health and product characterization sections of EPA's Bt Plant-Pesticides, Biopesticides Registration Action Documentary, 2000
60.   Goodman, A.E., Marshall, K.C. & Hermansson, M. (1994). Gene transfer among bacteria under conditions of nutrient depletion in simulated and natural aquatic environments. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 15: 55-60.
61.   Harding, K. (1996). The potential for horizontal gene transfer within the environment. Agro-Food-Industry Hi-Tech. July/August: 31-35.
62.   Ho, M.W. & Tappeser, B. (1997). Potential contributions of horizontal gene transfer to the transboundary movement of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. In Transboundary Movement of Living Modified Organisms Resulting from Modern Biotechnology: Issues and Opportunities for Policy-Makers (K.J. Mulongoy, ed.) pp.171-193, International Academy of the Environment, Switzerland.
63.   Ho, M.W. et al., "Gene Technology and Gene Ecology of Infectious Diseases" Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 10: 33-39 1998.
64.   Hoffman, T., Golz, C. & Schieder, O. Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants. Current Genetics, 1994, 27: 70-76.
65.   Mezrioui, N. & Echab, K., Drug resistance in Salmonella strains isolated from domestic wastewater before and after treatment in stabilization ponds in an arid region (Marrakech, Morocco), World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 1995, 11, pp. 287-290.
66.   Nannipieri, P., Grego, S., & Ceccanti, B., Ecological significance of the biological activity in soil, Soil Biochemistry, 1990),  6, pp. 293-355.
67.   Stotzky, G., Persistence and biological activity in soil of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis and of bacterial DNA bound on clays and humic acids, Journal of Environmental Quality, 2000, 29:691-705.
68.   Tapp H. and Stotzky G., Persistence of the Insecticidal Toxin from BT subsp. Kurstaki in Soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 1998, 30, No. 4, pp. 471-476.


1.   .Mae-Wan Ho, Genetic Engineering Dream or Nightmare?, Continuum, NY, 1999

2.   Ronnie Cummins & Ben Lilliston, Genetically Engineered Food, Herlowe & Co., NY, 2000

3.   Physicians Desk Reference, Medical Economics Company, 1998

4.   Marc Lappe and Britt Bailey, Against the Grain: Biotechnology and the Corporate Takeover of Your Food, Common Courage Press,1998

5.    Jack Doyle, Altered Harvest, Viking Penguin, Ink, NY, NY, 1985

6.    James D. Torr, Genetic Engineering, Opposing Viewpoints, Greenhaven Press, Inc., San Diego, Ca.2001

7.    Lisa Yount, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Facts on File, Inc., 2000

8.   Buckingham Health Authority, Verney House, Aylesbury HP19 3ET 

9.   Alan Mc Hughen, PhD (Senior Research Scientist at the  University of Saskatchewan Canada, Chair of the International Biosafety Committee of the Genetics Society of Canada, and developer of transgenetic plants) Pandora’s Picnic Basket, Oxford University Press, 2000

10.   Stephen Nottingham, PhD (biologist specializing in crop protection research in the US and the UK), Eat Your Genes, St. Martin’s Press, Inc, NY, 1998

11.    Jeremy Rifken, The Biotech Century, Penguin Putnam, Inc., NY, 1998

12.   Kathleen Hart, Eating in the Dark, Pantheon Books, NY, 2002


Internet Articles and News Releases

1.    Arpad Pusztai, GM Foods; Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health?,

.2.   Mae-Wan Ho,

3.    Key FDA Documents, Alliance for Bio-Integrity, www.

4.    Open Letter from 443 World Scientists to All World Governments Concerning Genetically Modified Organisms,

5.   Prof. Joe Cummins, PRAST (Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology), GE crops contain bacterial DNA that may be hazardous to health,

6.    Dr. Joe Cummins, Emeritus Professor of Genetics, University of Western Ontario, The fate of food genes and the DNA CpG motif and its impact, Toxicology Symposium, University of Guelph, March 3,2001,   http://www.saynotogmos.org_studies.htm               

7.   Health Risks Associated With GE Food,

8.  Larry Bohlen,  Secret US 'Biopharms' Growing GM Experimental Drugs,

9.   NJ Dept. Of Health and Senior Services, Hazardous Substance Fact  Sheet,    

10.   Nathan B. Batalion, 50 Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Foods, 2000,  Americans for Safe Food. Oneonta, N.Y.     

11.   Genetically Engineered Crops - a Threat to Soil Fertility?,

12.   Shiv Chopra and others, rBST (NUTRALAC)”Gaps Analysis” Report by rSBT Internal Review Team, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, April 21,1998. Also Frederick Bever, “Canadian Agency Questions Approval of Cow Drug bt US”, Rutland (Vermont) Herald, Oct. 6, 1998

13.   A. Kimbrell,, (1993), The Human Body Shop: The Engineering and Marketing of Life, Penang, Third World Network

14.  Center for Food Safety, Food Safety Review, Vol. 1, no. 1, Spring 2000

15.   Dr Harash Narang, Genetically Modified Food and Animal Feed,

16.   crop, New E. coli study could shed light on movement of GM bacteria

17.   John Robbins, Genetically Engineered (GE) Foods, Health Problems from Eating Genetically Engineered Foods?

18.   Institute of Science in Society, Acrylamide in Cooked Foods: The Glyphosate Connection, ISIS Report, Aug. 2002,;php

19.   Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher, Frequently Asked  Questions About Genetically Engineered Food, www.gene-watch/programs/gefood/faq-food.html

20.   The Campaign to Label Genetically Engineered Foods, News Updates, June,


22.  Philip Brasher,  July, 2001, Witness Tells Scientists Biotech Corn to Blame for Allergic Reaction,,; Philip Brasher, AP Farm Writer, Arlington, Va., July 18, 2001

23.   Women’s Environmental Network, Gene Foods,

24.   Fred Walters, editor of Acres, USA GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEEDS OF CONTROVERSY, Taped October 10, 2001 at University of Texas, Austin -

25.   P. Nannipieri,  et al. (1990), G E Crops - a Threat to Soil Fertility?, PRAST

26Health Risks Associated With GE Foods,, 

26.   Excerpt from "Genetically Engineered Crops - A Threat to Soil Fertility?", published by Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology (PSRAST) at"

27.   Health Risks Associated With GE Foods,,

28.   (, Manufacturing Drugs and Chemicals in Crops: Biopharming Poses New Risks to Consumers, Farmers, Food Companies and the Environment)

29.   Edible AIDS vaccine or dangerous biological agent?  25 April 2002, Veljko Veljkovic, Laboratory for Multidisciplinary Research, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. E-mail:, and Mae-Wan Ho, Director, Institute of Science in Society, P.O. Box 32097,

London NW1 0XR, United Kingdom. E-mail:

30.   Prof. Joe Cummins and Dr. Mae-Wan Ho, Scrambled Genomes in Human Gene Therapy and Transgenic Plants, ISIS Report, March 7, 2002,

31.   Prof. Joe Cummins, Viruses with interleukin 10 could become "doomsday" pathogens, ISIS Report, 7 March 2002, Poison Pharm Crops Near You

32.   Ho MW, Ryan A, Cummins J. Cauliflower Mosaic Virus- A recipe for Disaster. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 1999 no 4. Available at

33.   John B. Fagan, PhD, (Professor of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Chairman of the Department of Chemistry, Co-director of the Physiology and Molecular and Cell Biology Ph.D. Program, and Dean of the Graduate School, Maharishi University of Management) ASSESSING THE SAFETY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOODS, Internet

34.   New York Times Sunday Magazine, Quotable Quotes from 35.. Sharyn Martin, PhD,  IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO DNA AND RNA, PSRAST)

36.    Mae-Wan Ho, Angela Ryan (Biology Department, Open University Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK), J. Cummins (Department of Plant Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada), T. Traavik (Dept. of Virology, Institute of Medical Biology, MH-Breivika and Norwegian Institute of Gene Ecology, Norway), Unregulated Hazards ‘Naked’ and ‘Free’ Nucleic Acids,  

37.   Cox, C., Herbicide Fact Sheet: Glufosinate, Journal of Pesticide Reform, North West Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Oregan, US, 1996.
38.   William von Meyer, PhD (genetic and biological researcher), Fairview Industries: Sales of Milk Hormone rBGH Must be Suspended: Diabetes Risk; Press Release, BLUE MOUNDS, Wis., Oct. 27 /PRNewswire/ via NewsEdge Corporation   

39.   Barbara Keeler and Robert Sterling Editor, Starlink Is Not The Problem! Suppressed Information About The Real Hazards Of Genetically Engineered Foods, The Konformist,  40.  Malcolm Hooper Ph.D. (Emeritus Professor of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Sunderland; Chief Scientific Adviser to the Gulf Veterans' Association), GENE MODIFIED CROPS AND HUMAN HEALTH, GM News 13 (28/09/01)

 Individual SURVEY FORM

 Please answer by writing in the appropriate number from 1 to 5, with 1 signifying "Never", 2 = "Occasionally", 3= "Half the time", 4= "Often", and 5 = ""All the time".

  1.        Have you noticed any swelling of tissues especially around the eyes and hands that began after 1990?   #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?           Does the swelling occur after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        .       

2.        Have you noticed any abdominal pain or swelling, constipation or diarrhea more often since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .    

3.        Have you noticed any abdominal pain or swelling, constipation or diarrhea after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        .       

4.        Have you noticed any muscle pain not associated with excess exertion that began after 1990? #        if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .               

5.        Have you noticed any muscle pain after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .                             

6.        Have you noticed any allergic reactions (skin rash, hives, sinus congestion, asthma, swelling of repertory passages, headaches, or dizziness) that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .               

7.        Have you noticed any allergic reactions (skin rash, hives, sinus congestion, asthma, swelling of repertory passages, headaches, or dizziness) pain after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        .                                 

8.        Have you noticed any depression, chronic fatigue, irritability, inability to concentrate, extreme restlessness or hyperactivity that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .          

9.        Have you noticed any depression, chronic fatigue, irritability, inability to concentrate, extreme restlessness or hyperactivity after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        .       

10.    Have you developed any type of tumors, cysts or cancers that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .              

11.    Have you developed arthritis any time after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .               

12.    Have you noticed an increase in viral, bacterial , and/or fungal infection since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .             

13.    Have you developed resistance to antibiotics since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .            

14.       Have you noticed any specific foods that provoke any type of adverse reaction?

#        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .      What type of foods?                         .   

 Please send survey results to:

Laurie Lynch

Living Well Health and Education Center

3342 Legion Rd. Hope Mills, NC  28348

 or call (910) 426-5159


Physician's SURVEY FORM

 Please answer by writing in the appropriate number from 1 to 5, with 1 signifying "Never", 2 = "Occasionally", 3= "Half the time", 4= "Often", and 5 = ""All the time".

 Have you noticed any increase in incidences of the following conditions?

  1. Have you noticed any edema, especially swelling around the eyes and hands that began after 1990?  #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .      Does the swelling occur after eating restaurant or processed foods?  #        ..       
  1. Have you noticed any irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, colitis, abdominal pain or swelling, constipation or diarrhea since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .           
  2. Have you noticed any abdominal pain or swelling, constipation or diarrhea after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        .       

4.   Have you noticed any muscle pain not associated with excess exertion that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .    

5.   Have you noticed any muscle pain after eating restaurant or processed foods?

#        .                        

6.   Have you noticed any allergic reactions (skin rash, hives, sinus congestion, asthma, swelling of repertory passages, headaches, or dizziness) that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .    

7.   Have you noticed any allergic reactions after eating restaurant or processed foods? #        ..       

8.   Have you noticed any type of tumors, cysts or cancers that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .              

9.   Have you noticed any arthritis any time after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .                 

  1.  Have you noticed any increase in viral, bacterial, and/or fungal infections since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .             
  2.  Have you noticed any resistance to antibiotics since 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?     .            
  3.  Have you noticed any depression, chronic fatigue, irritability, inability to concentrate, extreme    restlessness or hyperactivity that began after 1990? #        , if 2 - 5, in what year did it begin?      .    
  4.  Have you noticed any depression, chronic fatigue, irritability, inability to concentrate, extreme restlessness or hyperactivity after eating restaurant or processed foods?  #        ..       
  5.  Have you noticed any specific foods that provoke any type of adverse reaction?   #        . What type of foods?                                 .   

 Please send survey results to:

Laurie Lynch

Living Well Health and Education Center, 3342 Legion Rd. Hope Mills, NC  28348    

 or call (910) 426-5159


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      Copyright © Laurie Lynch, N.D., 2008-2011